Open Access Short communication

Phloroglucinol is Effective for in vitro Growth and Multiplication of Musa accuminata Cv. Grand Naine Shoots and Roots

Luciana Cardoso Nogueira Londe, Wagner A. Vendrame, Alexandre Bosco De Oliveira, Massy Sanaey, Annanda Mendes Costa

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/33718

Despite being a major staple food in the world, banana production in the United States is still limited, with about 500 acres under cultivation. Micropropagation has been an effective method for the large-scale production of bananas to meet both domestic and international markets. However, the efficiency of micropropagation protocols depends on several factors, particularly on the types, combinations, and levels of plant growth regulators used in the culture media. Phloroglucinol is a growth regulator that acts synergistically with auxins and cytokinins. The use of phloroglucinol for the production and development of in vitro plantlets of Musa spp. cv. Grande Naine were investigated. Multiplication and elongation of shoots and roots in vitro was enhanced by the addition of 200 μM phloroglucinol to MS medium, as compared to the control with 13.2 μM BA. Higher concentrations (400 to 1000 μM phloroglucinol) resulted in reduced growth and development of shoots and roots in vitro.

Open Access Original Research Article

Semen Quality and Fertilizing Ability of Roosters Semen Diluted with Quail Egg-yolk Supplemented with Polar and Non Polar Dried Garlic Extracts

A. S. Balogun, O. A. Jimoh, T. A. Olayiwola, Z. Y. Abubakar

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/32395

Semen Quality and Fertilizing Ability of Roosters Semen Diluted with Quail Egg-yolk Supplemented with Polar and Non Polar Dried Garlic Extracts

Aim: This study was designed to assess the potentials of dry garlic extracts to improve rooster semen quality for on-farm hen insemination.

Study Design: Completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement.

Place and Duration of Study: Poultry unit of the Teaching and Research Farm, Oyo State College of Agriculture and Technology Igboora, Oyo State, Nigeria. The study lasted for eight weeks.

Methodology: Dry garlic was processed to obtain its aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts using standard procedures. The extracts were assessed for percentage free radicals scavenging ability and supplemented in egg-yolk citrate extender. The semen parts were randomly allotted to three extender containing different extracts in different concentrations and eight nested inclusion. The extender was diluted with the semen in ratio 2:1. The samples were assessed for semen quality Parameters: pH, mass activities, motility, livability and sperm concentration. The extended semen samples that possess sperm motility above 50% were further considered for artificial insemination to assess in vivo fertilizing ability of the sperm cells. A total number of 120 hens were allocated randomly to each treatment at 5 hens/treatment. The hens were everted and extended semen was deposited into the intra vagina of the hens. The hens were inseminated twice weekly in the evening for a period of 6 weeks.

Results: Aqueous garlic extracts performed better than its associate when supplemented into Quail egg-yolk citrate extenders for semen quality evaluation, evident by better mass activities, motility and viability across the inclusion levels. Higher fertility and hatchability was recorded across the treatments (3-6) with aqueous garlic extracts comparable to unextended semen performance.

Conclusion: Aqueous garlic extract supplemented in quail egg yolk used as a poultry semen diluents, exhibited better antioxidant potential and has further elicited better sperm quality by enhancing in-vivo fertilizing potential of the sperm cells than the other two counterpart extracts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Characterization of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes Using Microsatellite Markers

Pam Joshua Gyang, Evans N. Nyaboga, Edward K. Muge

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/33519

Molecular Characterization of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes Using Microsatellite Markers

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is one of the most important legume crops, but the knowledge on genetic diversity of the genotypes grown in Kenya is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of common bean genotypes from different growing regions (Eastern, Central, Rift Valley, Nyanza and Western) in Kenya using simple sequence repeat (SSR; microsatellites) markers. Using five SSR primers across 40 genotypes, a total of 366 alleles were amplified, with an average of 4.5 alleles per locus. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of the SSR markers ranged from 0.48 to 0.74 with an average of 0.60. The pair wise genetic similarity between common bean genotypes ranged from 0.15 to 1.0 with an average of 0.54. A dendrogram based on the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) grouped the 40 genotypes into two major clusters. It was notable that the first major cluster was further divided into two-separate sub-clusters, representing genotypes from each of the regions. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the SSR markers showed that the first two principal components (PCs) explained a total of 28.79% of the genetic variation and failed to distinguish significant groupings among the 40 bean genotypes. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed high levels of genetic variation (87%) within population, compared to the variation that exists among the populations. This study demonstrated the existence of considerable genetic diversity in common bean genotypes cultivated in Kenya and can be used as a foundation for future breeding programs to produce hybrids of desirable traits. The wider genetic diversity is important for future generations so that it copes with unpredictable climate changes and human needs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Morphological Variation in Wild and Cultured Populations of Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus)

E. V. Ikpeme, E. E. Ekerette, O. U. Udensi, M. O. Ozoje

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/33777

Assessment of Morphological Variation in Wild and Cultured Populations of Tilapia Fish

(Oreochromis niloticus)

Reliable estimates of morphometric traits are required for all traits of economic importance to predict response to selection, choose various breeding plans, estimate economic returns and to predict breeding values of stocks for selection. The present study was aimed at assessing the morphometric variation of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) from different populations. A total of two hundred samples from four populations that cut across two wild [Anantigha river (AN) and Ifiayong river (IF)] and two cultured [Unical fish farm (UN) and Domita fish farm (DM)] were used for the study with fifty samples from each population, respectively. A total of twenty morphormetric traits were measured on each fish. The data were transformed and subjected to multivariate analysis. Results obtained revealed that there were significant differences (P<0.05) in the morphometric traits of the different populations. Body weight was highest in the wild populations (AN =2.32 g; IF = 2.21 g). Correlation analysis revealed high and significant correlation coefficient between the measured traits, where the highest was observed from origin of the dorsal fin to the insertion of the pelvic fin (ODIP) and dorsal origin of the caudal fin to the ventral origin of the caudal fin (DCVC) with correlation coefficient of r= 0.955, P<0.01. Path coefficient analysis revealed that body depth, total length and posterior end of the dorsal fin to origin of the anal fin (PDOA) had the highest direct and positive contributions to the body weight of the fish with path coefficient values of 1.359, 0.943 and 0.673, respectively. Principal component analysis extracted four principal components (PC1 = 65.543%; PC2 = 10.869%; PC3 =7.364% and PC4 =1.327%) contributing to the observed variability among the populations. Hierarchical cluster analysis separated the tilapia fish samples into two major clusters, where fish samples from wild population were group majorly within the same cluster and samples from cultured population also grouped majorly within a common cluster. The findings suggest the strength of morphological traits in distinguishing tilapia populations as well as identifying the morphological traits with high contribution to the weight of tilapia fish which could be targeted for weight improvement.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Polyploidization of Zehneria capillacea (Shumach.) C. Jeffrey Using Nodal Explants

Josephine U. Agogbua, Chimezie Ekeke

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/28686

In vitro Polyploidization of Zehneria capillacea (Shumach.) C. Jeffrey Using Nodal Explants

Zehneria capillacea (Schumach.) C. Jeffrey is a wild diploid (2n = 2x = 22) andromonoecious climber that is eaten as vegetable in Nigeria. In vitro polyploidy induction was conducted using oryzalin as a microtubule inhibitor at various concentrations (10, 20 and 30 µM) and two time durations (24 and 48hrs). This research was conducted to develop a protocol for induction of polyploids through in vitro technique in order to create variability and broaden the genetic base of this species. Shoot length was significantly affected by oryzalin concentration at 24 and 48 hours treatment duration. The nodal segments immersed in 10, 20 and 30 µM oryzalin for 24 hrs had shoot lengths of 7.56 ± 0.06 cm, 7.24 ± 0.06 cm and 7.31 ± 0.07 cm respectively which were statistically similar while the shoot length of those treated for 48 hrs significantly decreased with increase in oryzalin concentration ranging from 7.02 ± 0.07 cm for 10 µM to 2.71 ± 0.11 cm for 30 µM. 10 µM oryzalin for 24 hrs and 48 hrs induced 100% 2x+4x and 2x+4x+8x cytochimera respectively. Application of 20 µM for 24 hrs induced 75% 2x+4x and 25% solid tetraploids while 20 µM for 48 hrs induced 25% 2x+4x and 75% solid tetraploids. Application of 30 µM oryzalin for 24 hrs induced 100% 2x+4x+8x and 48 hrs induced 20% 2x+4x+8x and 80% 4x+8x. The results obtained indicate that polyploids (tetraploid, 4x and octoploids, 8x) can be induced using nodal explants from Z. capillacea grown in vitro thereby conserving and enhancing the ethno-botanical and economic values the species.