Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Pomegranate Peel Extract on Submandibular Salivary Glands of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats: Histological, Immunohistochemical and Ultrastructural Study

Elham F. Mahmoud, Mahmoud F. Mahmoud

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/34101

Effect of Pomegranate Peel Extract on Submandibular Salivary Glands of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats:  Histological, Immunohistochemical and Ultrastructural Study

Purpose: Diabetes mellitus is a significant healthcare problem concern worldwide. It has different pathological effects on body tissues and organs especially on the major salivary glands.  Pomegranate considers a native fruit that contains numerous polyphenolic antioxidant ingredients when compared to other fruits and vegetables. The aim of the current study was to explore the biological impact of Pomegranate Peel Extract on streptozotocin induced diabetes in submandibular salivary gland of albino rats.

Methods: 30 male adult albino rats were separated into 3 groups: Group I (control), group II (diabetic group without any treatment), group III (diabetic group + Pomegranate Peel Extract). Diabetes induction was done by single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were measured, submandibular salivary glands were isolated and examined histologically using routine Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain, immunohistochemically for detection of anti-apoptotic marker, Beta cell lymphoma-2 (BCL2) to investigates the diabetes mellitus effects on both the structure and function of the submandibular salivary gland and ultrastructural investigations of submandibular salivary glands.

Results: The obtained results revealed tissue alterations and common complications in submandibular glands of diabetic rat. While the antioxidant (Pomegranate Peel Extract) treated rats had fewer tissue alterations than untreated animals.

Conclusions: It was concluded that pomegranate peel extract has marked improving effects against diabetic submandibular salivary gland complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Cultivation of Forage Palm CV. Giant with Different Concentrations of 1-Naphthaleneacetic Acid under Artificial and Natural Light

Jéssica Guerra Calaes, Luciana Cardoso Nogueira Londe, Selma Silva Rocha, Camila Maida de Albuquerque Maranhão, Bárbara Andrade Teixeira, Manoel Mendes Junior, Silvia Nietsche

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/33847

In vitro Cultivation of Forage Palm CV. Giant with Different Concentrations of 1-Naphthaleneacetic Acid under Artificial and Natural Light

The forage palm is cultivated in several arid and semi-arid regions of the world, characterized by water scarcity. In Brazil, the plant is a good option for forage production, meeting the food demand of animals, because it is a voluminous food, abundancy in water and nutrients. The use of in vitro micropropagation techniques, is an alternative to increase its production, allowing to produce large amount of disease-free plants in a short time and at reduced costs. This practice requires usually the use of growth regulators. Among these, auxin like 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), is capable of exert the functions on the expansion cellular and in the cellular stretching, and may also promote the cellular division in tissue culture. Therefore, the objective of this work was to verify the difference in the development of inoculated plants of forage palm cv. Giant with different concentrations of auxin under controlled light and natural light. The experiments for this study were performed in the Plant Biotechnology Laboratory of the Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais - EPAMIG Norte, in Nova Porteirinha-Minas Gerais, between August 2015 and December 2015. It was conducted in a completely randomized design, in a plot subdivided 5×2 (NAA concentration × type of light). At 30 days of culture, shoot height and diameter, as well as the number of shoots and roots were evaluated. The best dose of NAA was established between 2-3 mg L-1, with better explant development in artificial light.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Morphological and Phytochemical Markers for Polymorphism Studies in Some Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Accessions

Mansoor Saljooghianpour, Seyyed Mahdi Javadzadeh

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/33456

Fifteen Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) accessions were collected from different geographical regions of Baluchestan in Iran and were grown in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Data were recorded on days to 50% flowering (Calyces were harvested when they were tender and plump). When flowering reached 50%, data recording was started (Calyces were harvested when they were tender and plump).  Morphological analysis indicated that all the studied characteristics have a significant difference at P< 0.05 or P< 0.01 among Roselle accessions. Cluster analysis indicated slight differences among accessions. Some of accessions performed better than others and were ranked higher. According to the results, the average of similarity among accessions was 97%. Thus, the observed morphological differences and similarity values of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. accessions maintained at Iran suggest that all the accessions possess a useable slight genetic diversity. Also, phenotypic correlations between various morphological characteristics indicated that there were highly significant correlations at P< 0.05 or P< 0.01 among the most studied characteristics. Phenotypic correlations indicated that some associated factors correlate with each other and contribute in the occurring of these characteristics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional and Molecular Analysis of Wild Edible Gelam Mushroom (Boletus sp.) from Kelantan, Malaysia

Mohd Hafis Yuswan, Yue-Yuan On, Ying-Ju Tan, Wei-Hong Lai, Zainanda Zainal, Jie-Xian Sz, Fauzi Daud

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/33701

Aims: To conduct nutritional and molecular analysis of Gelam mushroom which is believed to have contained medicinal properties.

Place and Duration of Study: School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, between 2012 and 2014.

Methodology: The fruiting body of Gelam mushroom was collected from Bachok, Kelantan. Proximate composition and mineral content of the fruiting body of this mushroom was analyzed according to the guidelines of Association of Official Analytical Chemists and Alam et al. respectively. Fungal specific primers pairs ITS1-F and ITS4 were used in molecular analysis.

Results: Every 100 g of fruiting body containing 0.13 g fat, 4.53 g protein, 3.13 g fiber, 0.87 g ash, 5.1 g carbohydrate, 4.4 mg Ca, 297.13 mg K, 7.27 mg Mg and 24.4 mg Na. Molecular analysis using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) on Gelam mushrooms collected from the state of Kelantan, Malaysia were identified to be from Boletus genus.

Conclusion: Present study demonstrated that Gelam mushroom could be a new Boletus species and is a potential source of food rich in minerals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Chitosan Coating on the Physicochemical Characteristics of Brinjal Quality during Storage

Shaik Mohammed Zahoorullah, Lomada Dakshayani, A. Swaroopa Rani, G. Venkateswerlu

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/34733

Effect of Chitosan Coating on the Physicochemical

Characteristics of Brinjal Quality during Storage

Chitosan-based coating was preferred in recent years owing to its non-toxic, biodegradable, and biocompatible properties. The main purpose of Chitosan coating is to maintain the quality and to extend shelf-life of fresh fruits. This will also prevent the microbial spoilage. Chitosan has been proven one of the best biomaterial to be edible and biologically safe as it is a polysaccharide. Chitosan coating offers a defensive barrier against bacterial contamination and loss of moisture from the surface of food products, thus extending their shelf life.

The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the different Chitosan containing solutions in Brinjal to improve the shelf-life. This was evaluated by determining the ripening stages like weight loss, firmness, pH, total sugars, reducing sugars and non- reducing sugars. The results have proved that the addition of Lactic acid at 1% (w/v based on chitosan) and Tween 80 at 0.1% (v/v) in chitosan solution improved coating properties delaying the ripening stages with lowest  weight loss (8.8%), lowest firmness (49%), with no change in pH (4.6-4.7), high total sugars (91%), high reducing sugars(50%) and low  non-reducing sugars (45%) in brinjal.