Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Identification of Pediococcus pentosaceus from Cow’s Milk Curd and Its Use in Grape Juices Fermentation

B. Vijaya Kumar, K. Umamahesh, O. V. S. Reddy

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/34440

Isolation and Identification of Pediococcus pentosaceus from Cow’s Milk Curd and Its Use in Grape Juices Fermentation

Aims: The study affirms the quality of fermented grape juices with the potential probiotic bacterium Pediococcus pentosaceus, which can perhaps be used in the preparation of probioticated grape juices.

Study Design: Potential probiotic bacterium was isolated from curd prepared by using cow milk and identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. It was assessed for fermentation of two varieties of grape (white and red) juices.

Place and Duration of Study: The work was carried out in Microbial Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, S.V. University, Tirupati - 517 502, India; One year.

Methodology: The isolate was identified by 16s rRNA gene sequencing. Both fruit juices were fermented with isolate and Titratable acidity by titration method, Reducing sugars by DNS method, Cell viability by pour plate, TPC by Folin-Ciocalteu method, Antioxidant assay by DPPH method and Antimicrobial activity by Agar well diffusion method.

Results: The fermented red grape juice showed better fermentation characteristics of pH (3.1) and viable bacterial count (6.5 log CFU/mL) than the fermented white grape juice (3.2 and 6.2 Log CFU/mL) at 72 h fermentation. An increased titratable acidity (0.34%) was observed in fermented red grape juice as compared to the fermented white grape juice (0.27%). The fermented grapes juices possessed higher radical scavenging activity as well as phenolics content than their unfermented juices. The agar-well-diffusion method showed that both the fermented juices were able to inhibit the growth of the selected pathogenic bacteria (E. coli MTCC 40 and B. cereus MTCC 6840). Sensory evaluation showed that fermented red grape juice was preferred to other fermented and unfermented grapes juices.

Conclusion: Production of these fermented fruit juices on commercial scale may benefit the consumers, especially those intolerant to lactose and allergic to milk-based products. In addition, fermented fruit products are cholesterol free, low-cost healthy beverages and may provide better nutrition and health to the needy population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Climate in Seed Diversity of Wild Tunisian Rhus tripartita (Ucria) Grande

Ezzeddine Saadaoui, José Javier Martín Gómez, Nizar Tlili, Abdelhamid Khaldi, Emilio Cervantes

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/32786

Effect of Climate in Seed Diversity of Wild Tunisian Rhus tripartita (Ucria) Grande

Rhus tripartita (Ucria) Grande (Anacardiaceae) is a rare and endangered species. Seeds of Rhus tripartita were obtained from spontaneous populations in nine different localizations in Tunisia and their shape analyzed by image analysis. Seeds were harvested in 2014 and image analysis was done in CSIC laboratories (Salamanca, Spain).

The method for seed shape analysis is based on the comparison of seed images with a cardioid. Five hundred and thirty seeds from nine natural populations in Tunisia were analyzed giving percentages of identity with a cardioid (J index) ranging from 76.2 to 95.3. Variation was higher in the side of the seed containing the micropyle (right side). Seeds are classified in four types: A, B, C, or BC depending on their degree of similarity with the cardioid in both sides (right and left). Type A seeds have high degree of similarity on both sides; type B have high similarity in the right and low in the left; type C present high similarity in the left and low in the right, and finally type BC with low similarity value in both sides. Size and shape were compared for seeds in and among populations. Differences among populations were found both in size as well as in shape (roundness, J index total and partials). The analysis of seed size and shape reveals differences between climatic regions. The largest seeds are found in the lower semi-arid region; the smallest in the upper arid; in the lower arid, seeds are of intermediate size. Four morphological seed types were obtained (A, B, C and BC). Type A represents seeds in the lower semi arid climate whereas type C represents seeds in the arid climates.

Morphological types were characteristic for some of the populations indicating that differences in shape are independent of size Genetic and ecological effects contribute to seed size and shape of Rhus tripartita.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Defining an Efficient Model for Inducing Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Wistar Rats

G. T. Adedeji, A. A. Fasanmade, E. O. Olapade-Olaopa

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/33981

Defining an Efficient Model for Inducing Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Wistar Rats

Obesity and metabolic syndrome are major health problems which often present a confounding therapeutic challenge. Gene-nutrient interactions are implicated in metabolic phenotypes like Metabolic Syndrome, and rats have been used extensively to study them. However, different models have been stated in literature. The aim of this study was to explore different models and determine the most efficient model(s) of achieving diet-induced metabolic syndrome in wistar rats. Wistar rats (n=208) weighing 100-120 g were used in this study. Rats were divided into gender pairs of 4 diets: standard rats’ chow, standard rats’ chow + 60% sucrose, high-fat (60% margarine) and high-fat (60% butter) and fed for nine (9) weeks. Body-mass Index (BMI), blood glucose, lipid profile, and insulin concentration were determined using standard methods. Male rats fed on HFD (butter) showed increases in all components of MS (Glucose=161.2±0.8 mg/dl, Insulin=800±69 ρmol/l, total cholesterol=96±3.2 mg/dl). Male rats fed on a high fat diet are the most efficient means of creating diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome in Wistar rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotics Susceptibility Profile of Listeria Species Isolated from Poultry Wastes and Fishpond Water from Private and Institutional Farms in Ibadan, Nigeria

Olutayo Israel Falodun, Moturayo Janet Amusan

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/34566

Introduction: Untreated waste being discharged into the environment due to proliferation of poultry and fish farms can constitute a public health threat to human. Listeria, an emerging pathogen is commonly associated with food. This study aimed at determining the antibiotic resistant pattern of Listeria species isolated from poultry droppings and fish pond water in Ibadan.

Materials and Methods: Poultry waste and fishpond water samples were collected between April and July, 2016. Listeria Selective Agar was used to isolate Listeria species and identified using conventional methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method against ampicillin, cloxacillin, amoxicillin, streptomycin, ceftriazone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and tetracycline.

Results: A total of forty samples were collected and 105 Listeria spp. isolated; 62.9% from poultry waste and 37.1% from fishpond water.  From the institutional fish pond and poultry waste, 18.1% and 51.4% isolates were obtained while from private fish pond and poultry waste, 19.1% and 11.4% isolates respectively were obtained. The isolates were Listeria monocytogenes (27.6%), L. innocua (8.6%), L. ivanovii (16.2%) and other Listeria spp. (47.6%). All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin and ciprofloxacin; all L. monocytogenes, L. innocua and L. ivanovii were resistant to ceftriaxone, but 89.3% of the other Listeria spp. showed resistance. Furthermore, all (100%) the isolates obtained from private poultry farm were resistant to chloramphenicol while 53.3% were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Also, 12.2% of the isolates were found to be resistant to a combination of six antibiotics including: Ampicillin, amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, streptomycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

Conclusion: This study revealed that poultry waste and fish pond water from the selected farms could be a potential source for the transmission of multi-drug resistant bacteria to humans. Proper treatment of poultry waste and fish pond water should be ensured before discharge into the environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Composition and Analgesic Property of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Maesobotrya barteri

Dikioye Emmanuel Peters, Emmanuel Onyebuchi Ezendiokwere, Uche Chinedu Njoku, Ikehide Friday, Matthew Owhonda Wegwu

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/32994

Aim: This study was carried out to identify the phytochemical composition of Maesobotrya barteri, and effect on infra-red induced pain in mice.

Methodology: Twenty albino mice were selected and randomly placed in 5 groups of 4 animals each. Pain was induced by infra-red heat. Group 1 was treated with distilled water, Group 2 received 100 mg/kg bwt of aspirin. Extract doses of 500 mg/kg, 800 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg bw were given to groups 3, 4 and 5 respectively. The time taken for the animals to flick their tail off the I.R window was noted in seconds and taken as the reaction time.

Results: The plant contains alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, carbohydrates, cardenolides and saponins. Flavonoids were the most abundant. The plant extract increased the reaction time of the mice to radiant heat induced pain. All doses of the plant extract except the 800 mg/kg bwt dose showed the highest elevation of pain threshold at the 60 mins interval. The concentration of 1000 mg/kg body weight showed the highest elevation. Percentage inhibition was calculated as 27.5%, 20.6% and 44.4% for the three doses of the extract respectively. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the reaction time for the standard drug treated group and the extract treated group. The increase in reaction time for the treated groups relative to the control was not significant at p≤0.05.

Conclusion: This study has revealed that Maesobotrya barteri has a mild analgesic property. Its use as a pain reliever in some local communities of Nigerian is hence not substantiated.