Open Access Original Research Article

The Amelioration of Cyanide Induced Liver Toxicity with Bentonite Using Wistar Rat as Experimental Model

Okoye Ngozi Franca, Nwowo Esther Chinyere

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/34122

Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the ameliorating effect of a natural bentonite found in Nigeria on liver enzymes of Wistar rat fed with cyanide from cassava waste water. The enzymes assayed were alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST).

Materials and Methods: A total of 45 Wistar rats were used. The rats were divided into four groups and a control group. Each group had nine rats including the control. Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were given a daily dose of 0.4ml of cassava waste water containing a sub-lethal amount of cyanide (2.16 x 10-3 mg) for three weeks. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were counter administered with 0.2 ml, 0.4 ml, and 0.8 ml of 7% bentonite solution respectively. Administration of bentonite was done simultaneously with the cyanide administration. Serum samples were assayed weekly for ALP, ALT and AST activities.

Results: A significant increase in ALP, ALT and AST activities (p=0.05) for each week was recorded for group 2 (0.5 ml cyanide) when compared to the groups fed with bentonite. Significant decreases (p=0.05) were seen in the ALP, ALT and AST levels of groups fed with bentonite when compared to the control group and to the group fed only cyanide, with group 5 (0.8 ml bentonite)  having the lowest ALP for each week. Body weight gain and reduction was also observed.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that bentonite has a detoxifying effect on the liver of cyanogenic Wistar rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Characterization of Polymeric Nanoparticles Formed from Cowry Shells and Acacia Gum Extracts

Kunle Joseph Akinluwade, Grace Modupe Oyatogun, Gbenga Alebiowu, Isaac Oluwole Adeyemi, Ifeoluwa Emmanuel Akinwole

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/34880

Synthesis and Characterization of Polymeric Nanoparticles Formed from Cowry Shells and Acacia Gum Extracts

The study investigated the morphology, dimension, and composition of polymeric nanomaterials obtained from cowry shells and Acacia tree gum arabic extracts. Chitosan and gum arabic were extracted from cowry shells and Acacia trees respectively using standard chemical methods. These were used to produce the chitosan nanoparticles using ionic gelation technique. Observation with a Jeol JSM 7600F Field Emission Gun Ultra-High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscope confirmed the formation of distinct particles composed of smooth ovals, spheres and short cylinders. The nanoparticles were found to have a mean size of 150 nm as measured from a Philips 120 kV EM420 transmission electron microscope. The chemical analysis result obtained from the                  X-Ray fluorescence studies along with the morphology and dimension of the nanoparticles suggested that the developed nanomaterials are suitable as nanocarriers for targeted drug            delivery applications. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional, Phytochemical and Sensory Evaluation of “Mberiagworagwo” Traditional Food of Uruagunnewi People in Anambra State, Nigeria

Amadi Benjamin, Duru Majesty, Agomuo Emmanuel, Amadi Peter, Onedibe Ozioma

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/27901

Nutritional, phytochemical and sensory evaluation of “Mberiagworagwo” traditional food of Uruagunnewi people in Anambra State, Nigeria was investigated using standard methods. Available carbohydrates (79.60± 0.13%), crude fat (12.77±0.64%), crude protein (9.80±0.16%), total free fatty acid (12.81±0.16%) and total vitamins (22.39± 2.04%) were among the nutrients found in the studied food sample. Phytochemicals such as saponins, flavonoids, and tannins were discovered in the food. “Mberiagworagwo” had improved sensory evaluation attribute in terms of aroma, taste, texture (mouth feel) and colour when compared to other traditional foods. The overall acceptability of the traditional food could be compared to those of other traditional foods. The presence of nutrients and phytochemicals in “Mberiagworagwo” could be indication that the food maybe beneficial to the body on consumption. This study has shown the nutritional, phytochemical and sensory evaluation of “Mberiagworagwo” traditional food of Uruagunnewi people in Anambra State, Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Assessment of a Tidal Creek Receiving Slaughterhouse Wastes in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

Enetimi I. Seiyaboh, Sylvester Chibueze Izah

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/34593

Wastes from abattoir arise from undigested ingesta, bones, horns, hairs and aborted fetuses, blood, gut contents, urine and water are discharged into surface water close to an abattoir in Yenagoa metropolis, Nigeria. This study investigated the effects of abattoir wastes on a tidal creek in Bayelsa state, Nigeria. Triplicate samples were collected from 5 stations viz: A (about 200 m upstream of the abattoir activity), B (about 100 m upstream of the abattoir activity), C (about 10 m radius of the abattoir waste disposal point), D (about 100 m downstream of the abattoir activity) and E (about 200 m downstream of the abattoir activity). Standard bacteriological method was employed for the analysis of the water samples. Results showed that total heterotrophic bacteria, total coliform and fecal coliform ranged from 0.74 – 8.43 x 106 cfu/ml, 8.10 – 206.67MPN/100 ml and 5.03 – 170.00 MPN/100ml respectively. Analysis of variance showed that there were no significance difference (P>0.05) among the various location apart samples around the effluent disposal area, which was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to other locations. The bacteria populations were higher than the limits specified by World Health Organization/Food and Agricultural Organization and Standard Organization of Nigeria for drinking water. The bacteria diversity tentatively identified includes Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Micrococcus, Proteus, Salmonella, Klesbsiella, Bacillus, Citrobacter, Shigella species, Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli. The similarity interaction between the various sampling locations with respect to bacteria isolate ranged from 50.00% to 72.73%, being similar based critical level of significance = 50%. The findings showed that abattoir effluents are having impact on bacteriological quality of tidal creek of Ikoli, Bayelsa state. Hence the need for sustainable management processes of the effluents prior to discharge.

Open Access Original Research Article

Food Condiment Series 1: Fungal Contamination of Two Food Condiments (Brachystegia eurycoma and Detarium macrocarpum) Sold in Some Local Markets in Rivers State

Ikechi-Nwogu Chinyerum Gloria, Chime Happy

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/33661

Food Condiment Series 1: Fungal Contamination of Two Food Condiments (Brachystegia eurycoma and Detarium macrocarpum) Sold in Some Local Markets in Rivers State

This work is aimed at identifying these organisms in order to reduce the contamination of food condiments. A survey of seed-borne fungi associated with the seeds of Brachystegia eurycoma and Detarium macrocarpum (Whole and Ground) obtained from two different local markets in Rivers State namely; Etche and Bori was conducted. Fungi were isolated using Standard Blotter Method and pure cultures of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus spp, Botrydiplodia theobromae, Fusarium solani, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium spp, Penicillium notatum and Fusarium moniliforme, were obtained on Potatoes Dextrose Agar (PDA). Comparing the fungal contamination of the food condiments Detarium macrocarpum and Brachystegia eurycoma from 2 different markets in Rivers State, shows that the fungi obtained from Etche market has the highest percentage incidence of 181.83% as compared to Bori market (79.16%). It shows that these legumes are good substrate, for the growth of pathogenic fungi that produce toxins that are detrimental to human health because of the diseases they cause.  Fungi produce toxins which cause harm to us thus, consumers are advised to buy the whole seeds of (Brachystegia eurycoma and Detarium macrocarpum) and use immediately. Preservation of food condiments should be a major concern in order to improve food security and safe guard the health of the consumers.