Open Access Original Research Article

Pre-treatment of Abelmoschus esculentus Seeds with Salicylic Acid and Indole Acetic Acid Enhances Nutritional Values of the Fruits

A. M. Esan, C. O. Olaiya, K. A. Aremu, O. Fagbami

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/34075

Pre-treatment of Abelmoschus esculentus Seeds with Salicylic Acid and Indole Acetic Acid

Enhances Nutritional Values of the Fruits

Aims: This study investigated the effects of phytohormones using indole acetic acid (IAA) and salicylic acid (SA) on some biochemical parameters on LD 88 and 47-4 genotypes of okra.

Study Design: The study was carried out in a screen house condition with 104 pots for each genotype (4 treatments x 5 levels x 3 replicates) in a complete randomized design using phytohormones to evaluate their effect on the nutritional values of okra fruits.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT), Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria for a period of 60 days.

Methodology: Okra seeds were pretreated with IAA (0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mM ) and SA (10-2 , 10-4  and 10-6 Mm), and  distilled water. The treated (experimental) and untreated (control) seeds were germinated and grown to maturity in polythene bags containing 10 kg of clay soil.

Results: Treatment with IAA and SA did not affect proximate composition of okra fruit. Calcium levels were higher in 0.6 mM IAA 47-4 (1.03±0.01) and 10-4 mM SA (1.83±0.04), but in LD 8810-4 mM SA (1.07 ± 0.03) when compared to control group respectively. Whereas, higher zinc level was observed in 47-4 10-6 mM SA (3.93±0.84) and higher phosphorous level in 47-4 10-2 mM SA (1.78± 0.06). Sodium and potassium levels were higher in 0.6 mM IAA (47-4) as 3.15±0.01 and 1.83±0.02 when compared to the control group. Higher level of magnesium was observed in 10-2 mM SA (47-4) as 1.78 ±0.06 and in 10-4 mM SA (LD 88) as 1.62±0.04 as compared to control group. Higher levels of total phenol phytate, oxalate, saponin and tannin were recorded in both phytohormone-treated genotypes than those in the control. The results indicated that IAA and SA phytohormones improved mineral, anti-nutritional, and phytochemical constituents, of okra fruits in contrast with proximate composition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis Snkr10 as a Potent Plant Growth Promoting Phyllospheric Bacterium Isolated from Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) Plants

Nisha Sharma, Baljeet Singh Saharan

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/34795

Evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis Snkr10 as a Potent Plant Growth Promoting Phyllospheric Bacterium Isolated from Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) Plants

The phyllospheric microorganism used leaf surface of plants as habitat and help to maintain the plants growth by behaving as plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB). SNKr10 is a gram positive and rod shaped spinach phyllospheric bacterium with 100% identity to B. thuringiensis (Accession no: KU569966). This bacterium showed various plant growth promoting (PGP) attributes like phosphate solubilization, Indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophore, NH3, HCN production and in vitro biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). Result also showed that this bacterial strain exhibit positive effect on the growth parameters of T. foenum-graecum (methi) under in vitro seed germination experiment and pot trial of V. radiate (mung bean). These results suggested that B. thuringensis has an excellent potential to be used as bio-inoculant for agriculture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Kinetic Study of Cell Growth and Production of Amylase, Cellulase and Xylanase by Bacillus subtilis Using Barley Husk as the Prime Carbon Source

Hooi Ling Ho, Xin Ning Ku

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/33698

Kinetic Study of Cell Growth and Production of Amylase, Cellulase and Xylanase by Bacillus subtilis Using Barley Husk as the Prime Carbon Source 

Bacillus spp have been widely adopted as one of the vital producers of the industrial enzymes including amylase, cellulase and xylanase. In fact, submerged fermentation (SmF) with the presence of excess water is the best suited technique for the culture of bacteria especially Bacillus that required high moisture content to grow. Pure carbon sources besides being expensive, are not economically viable for the production of enzymes. Therefore, inexpensive yet effective agricultural residues such as barley husk was used in this study.

Aims: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the kinetic of cell growth and enzymes production of amylase, cellulase and xylanase by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 using barley husk as the main carbon source under SmF.

Methodology: In the present study, the standard inoculum size of 1 × 108 cells of B. subtilis was inoculated into culture flask containing barley husk for the production of enzymes in SmF. Samples were collected every 12 h for analysis.

Results: In this study, B. subtilis possessed the maximum specific growth rate (µmax) of 0.55 h-1 at 48 h with the maximum cell productivity of 1.98 × 1010 cells/L/h was attained during the exponential growth phase. On the other hand, the highest enzyme activity by B. subtilis obtained in this study was identified to be amylase with its activity of 1.991 U/mL, followed by xylanase activity of 1.492 U/mL and lastly cellulase with the lowest activity of 0.304 U/mL. In addition, the specific               enzymes activity and productivity were also elucidated to describe the kinetic study of enzymes production. The maximum specific xylanase activity of 6.81 U/mg, followed by specific amylase activity of 6.68 U/mg and the least specific cellulase activity of 0.73 U/mg were attained from                 B. subtilis. In fact, cellulase productivity of 18.23 U/mL/h was found to be relatively low compared to amylase with 119.48 U/mL/h and xylanase with 89.52 U/mL/h. Cellulase production was determined as growth associated process where its maximum production was attained at the end of the exponential growth phase. On the contrary, the production of amylase and xylanase were partially growth associated due to their maximal production observed after the exponential phase of cell growth.

Conclusion: In a nutshell, B. subtilis is anticipated to be potential bacteria for the optimisation of enzymes production for amylase, cellulase and xylanase using barley husk as the sole carbon source in SmF.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Parasitic Contamination of Common Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Sold in Markets within Dutsin-Ma Town, Katsina State, Nigeria

T. Auta, J. A. Bawa, C. M. Suchet

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/33010

Aims: The cases of parasitic diseases linked to consuming fresh fruits and vegetables are common in Northern Nigeria. This study assessed the parasitic contamination of common fruits and vegetables sold in markets within Dutsin-Ma town, Katsina State.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: markets within Dutsin-Ma, Katsina State, North-Western Nigeria between April and June 2016.

Methodology: A total of 108 samples of fruits and vegetables were collected from three different markets in Dutsin-Ma town and assayed.

Methods Involved: Extraction of parasitic stages from the fruits and vegetables, sedimentation of the extract by centrifugation, staining to allow visualization of parasite eggs, cysts and larvae, and identification by microscopy.

Results: A total of 45 samples were found to be positive, 41.67% prevalence for parasites in this study. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common parasite found, with prevalence of 11 (10.19%), while Strongyloides stercolaris, Schistosoma spp, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba hartmani were least, with 1 (0.93%) each. Contamination had significant association with parasite type (p = 0.0000). Contamination by type of fruits and vegetables showed spinach (vegetables) having the highest parasitic contamination 15 (83.33%), while cucumber and watermelon (fruits) had the least contamination, 2 (11.11%) eacha. Significant association was shown between prevalence and fruits/vegetable type (p = 0.0000).

Conclusion: Ascaris lumbricoides is the most prevalent parasite that contaminated fruits and vegetables sold in Dutsin-Ma markets. Vegetables, due to their rough/folded leaves are more contaminated with parasite cysts, eggs and larvae than fruits. Spinach showed the highest overall prevalence.

Open Access Review Article

Technological and Patent Evolution of Murine Monoclonal Antibodies

Kátia dos Reis, José Procópio Moreno Senna, Nei Pereira Júnior, Maria Antonieta Peixoto Gimenes Couto

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/34759

Among the pharmaceutical products targeted for patent protection, monoclonal antibodies stand out. Technological advances involving monoclonal antibodies aim to minimize detrimental human immune responses to antibodies (e.g., human anti-murine antibodies [HAMA]) and increase the binding affinity of antibodies to their antigen, making them more specific for their therapeutic target. This work evaluates the main technological advances pertaining to monoclonal antibodies, from the creation of technology for the immortalization of cells to generate hybridomas through the generation of chimeric and humanized antibodies by genetic engineering techniques, phage display technology, and transgenic mice. It also aims to provide an overview of commercially available and patented murine monoclonal antibodies and to correlate the main players, markets, and therapeutic uses for which the antibodies were developed. The study of mMAB (murine monoclonal antibodies) proved to be of great importance to understand how the development of these antibodies and their protection by patents affects their therapeutic use in cancer patients, in diagnostics, to treat inflammation, etc. The United States (US), Japan (JP), France (FR), and China (CN) constitute potential markets for these protected technological advances. Among current usage trends of three murine monoclonal antibodies whose patents have expired, the use of generic and/or biosimilar is evidenced, as well as the use of these assets to guarantee the protection of new products, new associated processes (e.g., new combinations, associations, or dosage forms), or new processes. The newest market trends related to patent protection in this technological area incorporate the use of monoclonal antibody fragments.