Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Different Concentrations of NaCl and NaCl - CaCl2 Combinations on Germination, Emergence Performance and Seedling Growth of Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

O. J. Ilori

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/32970

The Effects of Different Concentrations of NaCl

and NaCl - CaCl2 Combinations on Germination, Emergence Performance and Seedling Growth

of Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

Aim: The study was carried out to investigate the effects of different concentrations of NaCl and NaCl - CaCl2 combinations on germination, emergence performance and seedling growth of Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

Study Design: The experiment was set up in a completely randomized design (CRD).

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted at Department of Biological Sciences, Ondo State University of Science and Technology, Okitipupa, Ondo State, Nigeria, between, January, 2016 and June, 2016.

Methodology: Seeds of Sorghum bicolor were germinated in Petri-dishes which had been lined with Whatman No 1 filter papers. Treatments were control, NaCl (30, 60 and 120 mM) and combinations of NaCl and CaCl2. The filter paper in each of the Petri-dishes allocated to the control was moistened with 10 mL of water while those of the Petri-dishes allocated to the other treatments were moistened with 10 mL of the different concentrations of the salt solutions. The germination percentage, germination rate, water content of the seedlings and the growth parameters were determined according to conventional methods.

Results: The germination and germination rate of the seedlings were not significantly reduced by 30 mM salt solution. Treatment with higher concentrations of salt solutions gave a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in germination and seedling growth. The lowest germination percentage was observed in the 120 mM NaCl regime. As salinity increased the germination and seedling growth decreased. Combinations of NaCl and CaCl2 improved the germination and seedling growth of the test crop compared to NaCl regimes

Conclusion: The germination and seedling growth of NaCl treated S. bicolor was significantly inhibited. Combinations of NaCl and CaCl2 improved the germination and seedling growth of the test crop compared to NaCl regimes.    

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Fruit Juice Media on Bacterial Cellulose Production by Acinetobacter sp. BAN1 and Acetobacter pasteurianus PW1

Bukola C. Adebayo-Tayo, Moyinoluwa O. Akintunde, Jadesola F. Sanusi

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/34171

Aim: To produce Bacteria Cellulose (BC) using Fruit juice with high sugar contents as the substrate for production.

Study Design: The effect of different fruit juice on BC production by Acinetobacter sp. BAN1 and Acetobacter pasteurianus PW1 and Characterization of the BC was investigated. This research was carried out in the Department of Microbiology University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Methodology: Two bacteria Acinetobacter sp. BAN1 and Acetobacter pasteurianus PW1 were obtained from stock culture. Pineapple, Pawpaw and Watermelon fruit juice media were prepared and used for the production of BC by isolation. The BC produced was characterized.

Results: Two BC producers were selected for BC production using different fruit juice media, Pineapple juice medium (PIJM), Pawpaw juice medium (PAJM) and Watermelon juice medium (WMJM). The dry weight of the BC produced by Acinetobacter sp. BAN1 and Acetobacter pasteurianus PW1 ranged from 0.3 – 6.4 g/l and 0.1 – 7.7 g/l. PAJM supported the highest BC production. FTIR spectrum of the produced BC indicates the presence ofbonds that connect the glucose monomers into a polymer also the presence of carbonyl groups and hydroxyl groups. Conclusion: The study has shown that the setected cellulose producing strains can utilize the nutrients and sugars in the fruits for production of BC.

Open Access Original Research Article

Responses of Morphological and Yield Components of Pepper in Treatments of Glomus deserticola Trappe, Bloss & J. A. Menge, Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quél. compost and Poultry Manure

O. J. Olawuyi, S. G. Jonathan, B. J. Babalola, D. A. Aina, O. M. Olowe, O. S. Ogunsanya

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/33593

Responses of Morphological and Yield Components of Pepper in Treatments of Glomus deserticola Trappe, Bloss & J. A. Menge, Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quél. compost and Poultry Manure

The response of five varieties of pepper was investigated at the research farm of the Department of Botany, University of Ibadan. Five treatments of Glomus deserticola (AMF), poultry manure (PM), Pleurotus pulmonarius (SMC) were inoculated into 5 kg of sterile soil in poly pots, while uninoculated served as control. The treatment and varieties produced highly significant (p<0.01) effects on the total number of fruit, while total fresh weight was highly significant for treatment. Jos pepper and treatment combinations of AMF + PM produced the highest mean for the total number of 24.07 and 25.87 fruits, while Bell pepper had highest total fresh weight and dry weight of 12.15 g and 12.05 g respectively. The leaf length, leaf width, the number of leaves, number of branches and stem girth of Long pepper were significantly higher with 9.20 cm, 4.63 cm, 110.01 cm, 5.89 cm and 0.82 cm respectively, while plant height (48.82 cm) and stem height (30.27 cm) of cherry pepper had the highest. The plant height was positive and strongly correlated (p< 0.01) with stem height, leaf width, leaf length, number of leaves and stem girth at r= 0.84, 0.80, 0.83, 0.79 and 0.60 respectively. Also, there was a positive association between the total number of fruits and total fresh weight (r= 0.56). However, the selection of Jos, Bell, Long and Cherry pepper based on morphological and yielding traits as a result of individual and combined treatments of Glomus deserticola, Pleurotus pulmonarius compost, and poultry manure could play major roles in food security.

Open Access Original Research Article

Secondary Traits and Selection Environment of Plant Density Tolerance in Maize Inbreds and Testcrosses

A. M. M. Al-Naggar, R. Shabana, M. S. Hassanein, T. A. Elewa, A. S. M. Younis, A. M. A. Metwally

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/35510

Secondary Traits and Selection Environment of Plant Density Tolerance in Maize Inbreds and Testcrosses

Secondary traits in maize are used in screening programs for selecting tolerant genotypes to a specific abiotic stress. Indirect selection would be effective if heritability of the secondary trait is greater than that of the primary trait and correlation between them is substantial. The objectives of the present investigation were to identify secondary trait(s) for plant density tolerance (PDT) in maize and to identify the best selection environment for improving traits related to plant density tolerance. Testcrosses were produced between 23 inbreds and 3 testers. Evaluation of 69 testcrosses and 23 inbreds for 30 traits was carried out in 2016 season under 3 plant densities using a split plot design in 3 replications. Under high density (HD), out of 30 traits, favorable and significant correlation coefficients (r) were exhibited between stress tolerance index (STI) and 23 traits of testcrosses (all 7 yield traits, all 9 tassel traits, penetrated light at ear (PL-E), penetrated light at bottom (PL-B), chlorophyll concentration index (CCI), lower stem diameter (SDL), upper stem diameter (SDU), ear leaf area (ELA), and barren stalks (BS). Based on high (r), high heritability and high genetic advance estimates, it is evident that the secondary traits for plant density tolerance in our study were grain yield/plant, grain yield/ha, kernels/plant, kernels/row, rows/ear, ears/plant, SDU, ELA, plant height, tassel dry weight, central spike length, and branch length. The best environment in achieving the highest predicted gain from selection was low density for 8 traits (grain yield/plant, grain yield/ha, 100-kernel weight, kernels/plant, ears/plant, tassel branch number, total spike length and PL-E), medium density for 4 traits (DTS, ear height, SDL and CCI) and HD for the rest of studied traits. These traits could be used by maize breeder as selection criteria for improving PDT.

Open Access Review Article

Hemophilia A and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

Martin L. Nelwan

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/35111

Hemophilia A is a hemorrhage disorder inherited according to the X-linked inheritance pattern. It affects about 1 in 4,000 to 10,000 males. Permanent changes in the F8 gene result in hemophilia A. These changes result in an abnormal version of coagulation factor VIII. This abnormal condition determines the kinds of the disorder, namely, severe and mild or moderate hemophilia A. Currently, to treat hemophilia A, infusions of plasma-derived or recombinant factor VIII can be used. However, the cost is extremely high. It makes heavy burdens on the patients, their families or the health care system. Therefore, advanced therapy as iPSCs technique has attracted attention of researchers to research for curing this disorder. For example, to obtain edited DNA segments due to hemophilia A, this technique can be used. Research results in animal models have shown important advances.