Open Access Short Research Article

An Alpha Amylase Like Protein from Plantains

Ibrahim Khalil Adam, Abdullahi Abdulkadir Imam, Bello Aminu Bello

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/35260

Carbohydrates and lignocellulose biomass are the major feedstock for the bioethanol production. The processing of starch to bioethanol is a challenging process that requires several agents and varying conditions. The starch liquefaction and saccharification are key processing steps in the bioethanol industry. The rate-limiting α-amylase plays an important role due to its endo-glycosidic activity. α-amylase endo-glycosidic action on long glucan chains may be rate limiting in starch. The purpose of this study is to purify an alpha amylase from plantains. Water soluble proteins were extracted from fully ripened plantains, and α-amylase activities were measured. It was observed that there is a strong variation in α-amylase activities among individual plantains, although the protein concentration was generally low. The proteins were fractionated using ammonium sulphate, the α-amylase precipitated at 30% of the salt. This is characteristically low and desirable since most proteins precipitate at higher ammonium sulphate concentration. It suggested that majority of contaminating proteins and other molecules may be removed in the single step; dialysis was used to remove the salt. Consequently, significant enrichment in α-amylase activity was recovered after dialysis. Subsequent purification of the protein was attempted using ion exchange chromatography. The protein binds to Q-sepharose at neutral pH but this was not successful at acidic pH. Therefore, the result revealed that the protein could be negatively charged at that condition. Hence, a new alpha amylase like protein was purified from plantains.

Open Access Original Research Article

Kolaviron Reduces Cadmium-induced Cytotoxicity and Production of Reactive Oxygen Species by Suppressing Inflammatory Response

Daniel I. Silas-Olu, Tebekeme Okoko

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/35805

Kolaviron Reduces Cadmium-induced Cytotoxicity and Production of Reactive Oxygen Species by Suppressing Inflammatory Response

The effect of kolaviron (a bi-flavonoid complex extracted from Garcinia kola) on cadmium (Cd)-induced cell death/ production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in monocyte U937 cells and production of inflammatory markers/ antioxidant enzymes in U937-derived macrophages was investigated. In the first experiment, U937 cells were incubated with or without kolaviron for 24 h before exposed to Cd (10 µM). Cell viability and ROS production were later assessed via MTT reduction and DCHF assays respectively. In the other experiment, U937 cells were transformed to the macrophage form using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and incubated with or without kolaviron for 24 h before exposed to Cd. Subsequently, production of TNF-a, IL-6 were analysed via cytokine ELISA and the expression of NF-κB, iNOS, SOD and catalase were assessed using RT-PCR. The results revealed that Cd caused significant cell death and production of ROS in U937 cells which were reduced by kolaviron in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Kolaviron also reduced Cd-mediated secretion of TNF-a and IL-6 in U937-derived macrophages which was concentration-dependent for the reduction of TNF-a (p < 0.05). The bi-flavonoid complex also reduced Cd-mediated expression of the transcription factors (NF-κB and iNOS) and the antioxidant enzymes (SOD and catalase) but the observation was only concentration-dependent for the reduction of catalase (p < 0.05). These shows that kolaviron reduced Cd-mediated alterations in monocyte U937 cells and macrophages. Implications are discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production, Nutritional and Microbiological Evaluation of Mahewu a South African Traditional Fermented Porridge

Ilesanmi Festus Fadahunsi, Opeyemi Olayinka Soremekun

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/33175

Production, Nutritional and Microbiological Evaluation of Mahewu a South African Traditional Fermented Porridge

Aim: To investigate the microorganisms associated with laboratory production of Mahewu and to evaluate its nutritional property.

Study Design: Completely randomized design (CRD) was used with fermentation time considered as treatments and levels of microorganisms as factors.

Place and Duration of Study: All works were carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan, from May 2013 – January 2015.

Methodology: The Microbiological evaluation was carried out using the culture dependent method. Physicochemical properties were studied using a pH meter and titratable acidity was determined using titrimetic method. Enzymatic assessment was carried out using Dinitrosalicyclic acid method (DNSA) with the aid of a spectrophotometer. Nutritional analysis was determined using the Association of Analytical Chemist (AOAC, 2005) method and atomic absorption spectrophotometer, while sensory properties were carried by panel evaluation.

Results: The study revealed that the microorganisms predominantly associated with the production of mahewu were yeast and lactic acid bacteria. The physicochemical study showed that an inverse relationship occurred between the pH and titratable acidity. The amylolytic activity was significantly higher (P<0.05) at the beginning of the fermentation process but declined towards the end. The moisture content increased significantly from 14.80% in the raw maize to 85.50% in mahewu while the protein, fat, ash, fibre and carbohydrate contents decreased significantly (P<0.05) from 11.00%, 4.83%, 1.55%, 1.10% and 66.72% respectively in raw maize to 9.21%, 2.02%, 1.03%, 0.83%, and 63.01% respectively in the produced mahewu sample. Similarly, the mineral contents analysis showed that sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, zinc and manganese contents decreased significantly (P<0.05) from 0.058±0.01 mg/kg, 0.109±0.03 mg/kg, 0.062±0.02 mg/kg, 2.555±0.01 mg/kg, 0.104±0.03 mg/kg and 0.700±0.08mg/kg respectively in raw maize to 0.051± 0.00 mg/kg, 0.82±0.01 mg/kg, 0.55±0.01 mg/kg, 1.963±0.06 mg/kg, 0.911±0.09 mg/kg and 0.528±0.01 mg/kg in the produced mahewu sample. The product was highly accepted by the consumers as indicated by the result of sensory evaluation.

Conclusion: The produced Mahewu was highly nutritious with good consumer’s acceptability and the microorganism involved could serve as potential starter cultures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of α-Amylase Inhibitory Potentials of Sida acuta, Tithonia diversifolia and Chromolaena odorata Leaf Extracts

Kemi Feyisayo Akinwunmi, Abiodun Akeem Ajiboye, Omolara Olajumoke Ojo

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/35148

Evaluation of α-Amylase Inhibitory Potentials of Sida acuta, Tithonia diversifolia and Chromolaena odorata Leaf Extracts

Aim: To investigate the inhibitory effect of Sida acuta, Tithonia diversifolia and Chromolaena odorata leaf extracts on the activity of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme (α-amylase) and to provide scientific validation of their folk use in diabetes treatment.

Study Design: The α-amylase inhibition assay was carried out as a measure of the anti-diabetic potentials of Sida acuta, Tithonia diversifolia and Chromolaena odorata.

Place and Duration: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria (January – November, 2016).

Methodology: Cold water, hot water and ethanolic extracts of Sida acuta, Tithonia diversifolia and Chromolaena odorata were obtained. Standard method was employed in the α-amylase inhibitory assays (3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA) method).

Results: The results revealed that the extracts had a dose dependent prevention of digestion of carbohydrates by inhibiting α-amylase. Ethanolic extracts of T. diversifolia, C. odorata and S. acuta gave the highest inhibitory activities against α-amylase with 41.02% (IC50 0.754 mg/ml), 43.67% (IC50 0.619 mg/ml) and 45.72% (IC50 0.604 mg/ml) maximum inhibition at a concentration of 500 µg/ml respectively.

Conclusion: It can be concluded from this study that extracts of these plants possessed great potential as anti-diabetic agents by inhibiting α-amylase. The presence of phytochemicals like flavonoids, saponins, and tannins might have contributed greatly to the inhibitory activities exhibited by these plant extracts.

Open Access Review Article

Friedreich Ataxia: Treatment with Genetic Approach

Martin L. Nelwan

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/36113

Friedreich ataxia (FA) is a disorder in the nervous system inherited to the Mendel’s law. Mutations in the FXN gene trigger the FA disorder. The FXN gene occupies chromosome 9q21.11 in the chromosome map. Four classes of alleles are in the mutated FXN gene. These include normal alleles, changeable normal alleles, complete penetrance alleles, and borderline alleles. Adequate treatments are unavailable for this disorder at present. However, to treat FA, genetic approach can be used. The approach may comprise genetic counseling and use of advanced therapy, gene therapy for instance. In genetic counseling, if both parents are carriers, a child has a 50% carrier and a 25% FA. To detect people with carrier, amniocentesis can be used for instance. To study FA for human needs, DNA banking is needed as used in gene therapy. Gene therapy is a method to correct damaged cells of patients. This technique has attracted attention of researchers to perform research for treatment of various diseases, particularly FA.