Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Characterization of Bioflocculant-Producing Bacteria from Wastewater at Jimeta, Adamawa State

Deborah Mathias, Sufyan Damenso Hammantola, Gali Adamu Ishaku

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/36148

Isolation and Characterization of Bioflocculant-Producing Bacteria from Wastewater at Jimeta, Adamawa State

Aim: The aim of this study is to isolate, identify and screen for bacteria capable of producing bioflocculant from three wastewater disposal sites; Jimeta Abattoir, Jimeta Modern Market and the Gwari Market waste disposal site located within the Jimeta metropolis, Adamawa State. Nigeria.

Study Design: The samples were prepared by diluting 200 ml of distilled water in 50 ml of the wastewater samples for each.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was carried out at the Chevron Biotechnology Centre Modibbo Adamawa University of Yola, Nigeria which lasted for about two months.

Sample Collection: The wastewater samples were collected in sterile containers and were taken to Chevron Biotechnology Centre, Modibbo Adamawa University of Yola for further analysis.

Methodology: Screening of bioflocculant-producing bacteria was carried out using the three wastewater samples collected from Jimeta metropolis. Growth media for bioflocculant production was prepared and identification of the isolate was done using techniques such as gram staining, biochemical tests like detection of urease and catalase production, IMViC tests etc. Each of the bacterial isolates were tested for its ability to ferment carbohydrate, screened for bioflocculant production using bioflocculant production broth medium and lastly the flocculating activity of the isolates was determined.

Results: By the examination of physical parameters of waste water samples had revealed that, all the samples were turbid with distinction in colour, pH and temperature change. Six bacteria were isolated and identified based on their morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics. From the biochemical characteristics, the organisms were confirmed as Escherichia coli (ISO1), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ISO2), Staphylococcus aureus (ISO3), Klebsiella spp. (ISO4), Salmonella spp. (ISO5) and Bacillus spp. (ISO6) in the wastewater samples. P. aeruginosa has the highest flocculation activity with 87.32%, while Salmonella spp. has the least flocculating activity with 13.5%, while the flocculating activity of E. coli, S. aureus, Klebsiella spp and Bacillus spp are 35.76%, 47.87%, 56.6% and 69.54% respectively

Conclusion: This study has shown that bacterial bioflocculants are capable of removing/flocculating suspension particle such as kaolin clay simultaneously and effectively. P. aeruginosa and Bacillus spp can be explored for bioflocculant-production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrient and Mineral Content of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus florida) Grown on Selected Lignocellulosic Substrates

A. O. Salami, F. A. Bankole, Y. A. Salako

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/35876

This study was carried out to determine the proximate and mineral content of Pleurotus florida mushroom in order to assess its nutritional value and to determine its yield and biological efficiency on the substrates. Pleurotus florida was cultivated on the four lignocellulosic substrates: sawdust, corn cobs, oil palm spadix and corn straw. A ramified spawn bottle of Pleurotus florida was multiplied and inoculated on pasteurized substrates at the Mycology Laboratory of the Department of Crop Production and Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, OAU, Ile-Ife, Osun State. The mature fruiting bodies were subjected to proximate and mineral analysis. The total yield and biological efficiency were also obtained. The result showed that Pleurotus florida contained 26.28-29.91% protein, 86.90-89.60% moisture, 0.48-0.91% fat, 19.64-22.82% fiber, 31.37-38.17% carbohydrate and 5.18-6.39% ash. The mineral contents ranged from 342-410 mg/100 g Calcium, 1009-1133 mg/100 g Phosphorus, 17-21 mg/100 g Iron, 277-359 mg/100 g Sodium and 2088-2281 mg/100 g Potassium. Also, the highest yield and biological efficiency were obtained on corn cobs substrate (110 g, 55%), followed by Oil palm spadix substrate (76.05 g, 38%) and least on corn straw substrate (63.12 g, 31.56%). Conclusively, Pleurotus florida is rich in protein, fiber, ash, carbohydrate, Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Iron and low in fats, Sodium and should be added to our diet to for qualitative diet.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gas Chromotography Mass Spectrometric Analysis and Molluscicidal Effect of Crude Saponin from Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del.

J. S. Hena, A. Sindama, D. Kulawe

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/28802

Crude Saponin extracted from the stem-bark of Balanites aegyptiaca was analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and also evaluated for its molluscicidal properties against Bulinus globosus and Biomphalaria pfeifferri under laboratory condition. The aim was to develop an environmentally friendly molluscicide from natural products that could be used in the control of snail intermediary host of schistosomiasis. GC-MS reveals fourteen compounds where in 9-octa-decanoic acid (C19H36O2) had the highest mass peak of 107 and a similarity index of 93% while Phenol, 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)-acetate (C12H14O3) recorded the least mass peak of 35 and a similarity index of 79%. 100% mortality was recorded for all the species at 10 mg/L except for adult Biomphalaria pfeifferi. Adult form of Bulinus globosus recorded the highest LD50 of 6.4 mg/L while the juvenile form of Biomphalaria pfeifferi had the least LD50 1.4 mg/L. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the LD50 Value among the two species of the snails and the level of development. This study therefore suggests the further study of these compounds on the field to ascertain its effect on non-target organisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Simulated Drought Stress on Secondary Metabolite Production in Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle L.; Rhizophoraceae)

E. N. Iwuala, A. Alam

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/36300

An experiment was performed to determine the response of drought on the phytochemical production in Rhizophora mangle L. Seedlings raised from the plant body (propagule) were exposed to water deficit condition for 10 days. Growth and quantitative analysis of the phytochemical compound were analysed after the drought treatments. It was observed that R. mangle was susceptible to drought stress. Drought treatment resulted in the reduction of phytochemical content and Relative water content (RWC). The results showed that drought affects the secondary metabolite contents along with damages caused in R. mangle.

Open Access Review Article

Emerging Trends in Plant Protection in Nigeria

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/36690

Emerging Trends in Plant Protection in Nigeria

Emerging trend in plant protection stems from the strengthening of the old control methods to microbial control of pathogens. This is based on the beneficial interactions of microbes on plant’s health, the mechanisms which include: pathogen suppression by microbial agents that could be through competition with the pathogen itself; antagonism in form of antibiosis, parasitism and then, predation. It could also be through probiotic action, which is plant growth production, elicitation of defense responses and induction of systemic acquired resistance or suppression of toxin production by the pathogen. The numerous examples of plant secondary metabolites (phytoalexins and phytoanticipins) reviewed here demonstrate that they constitute an important mechanism to stop the spread of phytopathogens in plants, both by acting as antimicrobials themselves or as elicitors of other defense responses. More interestingly, phytoalexins and phytoanticipins have been found active against pathogens and their use as ‘antibiotic potentiators’ or ‘virulence attenuators’ for the control of infectious diseases is promising. Hence, the progressing threat of pathogens leading to crop losses, food insecurity; attenuated poverty and the incessant need for crop protection, strengthen the importance of the research activities aimed at the isolation and characterization of plant secondary metabolites and the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the natural defences of plants against microbial aggressors. Emerging trends can also be viewed from the impact of environmental conditions on plant’s resistance (whether constitutive or induced), integrated pest management strategies, biological control and cultural practices.