Open Access Short Research Article

Biomethane Potential of Some Agroresources in Burkina Faso: Case Study of Vegetable Residues, Pig Manure, Mango Waste and Bovine Manure

Désiré Traoré, Dayéri Dianou, Alfred S. Traoré

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/36775

Biomethane Potential of Some Agroresources in Burkina Faso: Case Study of Vegetable Residues, Pig Manure, Mango Waste and Bovine Manure

Burkina Faso urban area is confronted to hygiene, wash and energy supply problems due to an important demographic growth. Methanization of organic wastes has been demonstrated by several studies as a solution to energy crisis and environmental pollution. The aim of this study is to use anaerobic digestion process as a sustainable technology to produce biomethane from vegetable residues (VR), mango waste (MW), pig manure (PM), bovine manure (BM) in order to diversify the sources of renewable energy as well as to reduce environmental pollution in Burkina Faso urban area. The physicochemical parameters of these organic wastes were determined using standard methods (AFNOR, APHA) and the biogas produced was analyzed by gas chromatography. From the physicochemical analysis, dry matter rates were 22.61±0.3% for PM, 15.3±0.3% for BM; 11.78±0.6% for VR and 8.04 ± 0.02% for MW. The highest volume of CH4 was obtained with PM (17526.43μl CH4), followed by VR (14359.19 μl CH4), BM (12460.89μl CH4) and finally mango waste (12460.89 CH4 μl). The rate of CH4 content in biogas produced was 61.6%; 59.1%; 57.6 and 53.3 for PM, VR, MW and BM.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variability of Phenolic Compounds and Biological Activities among Wormwood Extracts Originated from Different Bioclimatic Zones

Hanene Ghazghazi, Chedia Aouadhi, Imen Klay, Hanen Chakroun, Leila Riahi

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/36144

Aim: Wormwood is an aromatic spice widely used as flavor, antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. In this study the variability of total phenolics, total flavonoids, antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities among leaves extracts originated from four Tunisian regions were assessed.

Study Design: All the analyses were achieved in triplicate.

Methodology: Fresh leaves of Artemisia absinthium L. were harvested from four regions of Tunisia representing four different bioclimatic areas ranging from humid to arid zone. Phenolic and flavonoid contents were assessed based on colorimetric methods. The antioxidant activities of the studied extracts were tested based on DPPH and ABTS methods. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of Artemisia absinthium phenolic extracts were determined against ten indicators microorganisms by measuring the diameter of the growth-inhibition zone in millimeters, the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum bactericidal concentration.

Results: Considerable levels of bioactive phenolic compounds were revealed for the studied extracts. The highest levels of phenolic compounds were recorded for Gafsa site (Total Phenolic Content=127.5±5.22 mg GAE/g DW, Total Flavonoid Content=34.26±2.48 mg RE/g DW) while the lowest contents were observed for Ghar Dimaou locality (Total Phenolic Content =94.23±4.81 mg GAE/g DW, Total Flavonoid Content=26.95±1.98 mg RE/g DW). Similarly, considerable levels of antioxidant capacities were revealed based on both DPPH and ABTS tests with a significant variation according to the studied site. All the investigated extracts presented antimicrobial capacities against the ten tested strains with a variation according both to the extract origin and to the tested microbial strain. Especially, the highest toxicity was recorded against the species Aspergillus niger (MIC: 3.12 µg/ml, MBC: 6.25 µg/ml) and Candida albicans (MIC: 6.25 µg/ml, MBC: 12.5 µg/ml). Comparable levels were observed for bacterial strains with slight more effectiveness against Gram positive strains.

Open Access Original Research Article

Predicting CD4+ T Lymphocyte Count Using IgG and Total Lymphocyte Count in Newly Diagnosed HIV Infected Patients in Specialist Hospital Sokoto North West Nigeria

I. Abdullahi, M. N. Alo, M. A. Makusidi, K. M. Hamid, M. O. Mohammed

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/35824

Predicting CD4+ T Lymphocyte Count Using IgG and Total Lymphocyte Count in Newly Diagnosed HIV Infected Patients in Specialist Hospital Sokoto

North West Nigeria

CD4+ T cell count and viral load monitoring are expensive and unavailable to most human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected people in Africa. There is a need to have another marker of HIV infection that is less resource demanding. Studies in human immunodeficiency virus infected adults have demonstrated association of total lymphocyte count (TLC) <1200/µl and subsequent disease progression or mortality. This study was carried out to determine the relationship of CD4+ T lymphocyte counts with total lymphocyte count (TLC) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) in HIV-positive  highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) naïve patients attending Specialist Hospital Sokoto northern region, Nigeria. The study population comprised of 100 adult HIV-positive HAART naïve patients aged 19-65 years. The CD4+ T cell counts and these alternate biomarkers of study participants were measured. Spearman's rank order correlation was used for statistical analysis. CD4+ T cell count was positively correlated to TLC in group 1 and 3 (r = 0.558 and r = 0.530 respectively), and inversely correlated to IgG in group 1, 2 and 3 (r = -0.016, r = -0.002 and r = -0.276 respectively). Among the tested biomarkers, it was seen that TLC Ë‚135 cells/µl and IgG ˃20 g/l could be helpful in predicting CD4 cell counts of Ë‚200 cells/µl.

Open Access Original Research Article

Haematological and Biochemical Parameters of Red Sokoto Goats Fed Desert Date (Balanites aegyptiaca) Leaves as Supplement to Urea Treated Maize Stover

A. J. Hyelda, M. M. Yahya, J. B. Abakura, R. J. Wafar

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/36689

Haematological and Biochemical Parameters of

Red Sokoto Goats Fed Desert Date (Balanites aegyptiaca) Leaves as Supplement to Urea Treated Maize Stover

Aims: The study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding urea treated maize stover and graded levels of Balanites aegyptiaca leaves on the haematological and biochemical parameters of Red Sokoto goats.

Study Design: Completely Randomized design.

Place and Duration of Study: Teaching and Research Farm, Department of Animal Science and Range Management, Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, Adamawa state, between November 2016 and February 2017.

Methodology: Sixteen (16) Red Sokoto goats weighing 9.36 Kg on average were randomly grouped into four and exposed to four dietary treatments with four replicates: A (control), B (100 g Balanites aegyptiaca), C (200 g Balanites aegyptiaca) and D (300 g Balanites aegyptiaca), with each treatment group having four goats. The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. At the end of the experiment, about 10 ml of blood was drawn from the external jugular vein of the animals. The blood samples collected were used for the haematological and biochemical analysis.

Results: p<0.05 was considered as level of significance. Haemoglobin concentration (g/dl) ranged from 8.9 to 10.4 g/dl. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between the treatments and T4 had the highest concentration. There were significant differences (P<0.05) observed for packed cell volume which ranged from 25.5 to 38.3%. Significant differences (P<0.05) were also observed for white blood cells (15.6-20.4 ×103/µl), red blood cells (2.3-3.3 ×106/µl), neutrophils (23.9-49.8%), mean corpuscular volume (87.2-117.1 fl) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (27.2-39.5 g/dl). Monocytes (4-6%) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (31.8-39.0 pg) had no significant differences (P>0.05) between the treatments. Urea concentration, total protein and albumin ranged from 4.8 to 7.2 mmol/l, 5.6 to 6.8 g/l and 3.0 to 3.4 g/l respectively. There were significant differences (P<0.05) observed for urea concentration but no significant differences (P>0.05) were observed for total protein and albumin.

Conclusion: Supplementation positively influenced the haematology and biochemical parameters of the animals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation, Screening and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Utilizing Bacteria Isolated from Bitumen-Contaminated Surface Water in Agbabu, Ondo State

Temitayo O. Olowomofe, J. O. Oluyege, Dolapo O. Sowole

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/35414

Surface water samples from contaminated surface water in Agbabu, Odigbo Local government area of Ondo State were analyzed for hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria. The mean total bacterial count and mean total hydrocarbon- degrading bacterial counts were determined using pour plate technique. The hydrocarbon-utilizing potentials of the isolates were further determined by screening them in minimal salt broth supplemented with 2% crude-oil over a period of 14 days. The growth of the isolates was monitored by measuring the absorbance (OD600 nm) and Total viable count (log10 CFU/ml). The effect of temperature, pH and crude-oil concentration on their degradative potentials was determined. The isolates were identified based on their cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics according to Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. The Mean Total bacteria count was 7.70 (log10 CFU/ml) ranging from 6.25  to 8.77  (log 10 CFU/ml) while the Mean Total hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria was 7.14 (log10 CFU/ml) ranging from 4.77 to 7.64   (log10 CFU/ml). Six  bacteria genera isolated from the samples collected include: Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Bacillus and Alkaligens. Five isolates namely; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus lichenformis , Micrococcus luteus and Alkaligens faecalis showed maximum utilization of crude-oil as sole carbon source and were selected for further studies. The result of varying crude-oil concentrations (1.0 -2.5%) on each of the selected hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria showed that the isolates grew optimally at  2% crude-oil concentrations where two  of the isolates B. cereus and P. aeruginosa had the highest growth rate of 0.77 and  0.75 respectively. However, their growth gradually reduced at increased crude-oil concentration (2.5%).The growths of the isolates were optimal at neutral to alkaline pH (7-9) while their growths were greatly reduced at acidic pH 3. The optimum temperature for the growth of the isolates ranged between 40°C-45°C.The result from this research affirms that an effective utilization of crude-oil would require simultaneous action of several metabolically versatile microorganisms under favorable environmental conditions such as pH, temperature  and availability of nutrient.