Open Access Original Research Article

Caffeine and Cannabis Effects on the Cerebellar Cortex of Juvenile Rats

J. O. Owolabi, S. Y. Olatunji, A. J. Olanrewaju, P. U. Abu

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/36943

Caffeine and Cannabis Effects on the Cerebellar Cortex of Juvenile Rats

Caffeine and cannabis are two of the world most popularly consumed psychoactive substances. While caffeine is consumed with little or no regulation and restrictions in moist of the countries of the world; cannabis safety of consumption has been queried severally and as such, it is labeled an illegal drug in many countries. It is important to appreciate what the effects of these two substances could be especially in juvenile models with an attempt to mimic the real life scenarios where several people consume these drugs as teenagers and adolescents. To this end, 72 juvenile Wistar rats were distributed into six groups labeled A-E. Group A served as the control and the animals were only fed ad libitum; Group B were administered the lower dosage of caffeine; Group C were administered the higher dosages of caffeine; Group D were administered the lower dosage of cannabis; Group E were administered the higher dosage of cannabis while the Group F were administered the both caffeine and cannabis- each substance being the lower dosage. The administration lasted 21 days and the animals were sacrificed thereafter. The cerebellum was excised in each animal; fixed in formal saline and then processed using the Haematoxyline and Eosin staining technique to observe the histological structures of the tissues. Results were taken in forms of photomicrographs, and analysed. Observations show that the higher doses of the agents used had effects that could be deleterious on the cerebellar architecture, especially by morphologically distorting the Purkinje cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Two Pleurotus Species and Their Consortium to Evaluate Their Potential for Biodegradation of Spent Drilling Mud

H. O. Stanley, E. A. Umolo

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/35992

Biodegradation potentials of two white rot fungi (Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus pulmonarius) in soil contaminated with spent oil based drilling mud were investigated. The study was conducted over 63 days, with periodic monitoring after every 21 days. Four treatment options were used for the experimental set-up: Treatment A had P. ostreatus, B had P. pulmonarius, AB had both P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius and the Control (without fungal spawn). The parameters monitored were pH, conductivity, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen, available phosphorus, chloride, total heterotrophic bacterial (THB) count, total fungal (TF) count, heavy metals (Zinc, lead, Copper, Cadmium and Barium), and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH). Furthermore, a phytotoxicity test was carried out to determine the effect of the treatments on maize (Zea mays var. indentata) plant growth. The results showed an increase in microbial population. Treatment A recorded the highest THB count of 2.65x107 (cfu/g) and Treatment C the highest TF count of 1.07x105 (cfu/g). The percentage loss of TPH was in the order of: AB (98.08%)>A (94.79%)>B (87.02)>Control (6.12%) at the end of 63 days. The values for pH for the treatments ranged from 6.05-8.08; conductivity (µS/cm) ranged from 6580-14540; TOC (%) ranged from 2.15-5.19; total nitrogen (mg/kg) ranged from 696.36-742.77; available phosphorus (mg/kg) ranged from 402.71-642.38; chloride (mg/kg) ranged from 3200-5980; zinc (mg/kg) ranged from 43.66-128.47 respectively, the copper (mg/kg) ranged from 20.09-89.29; barium (mg/kg) 53.92-237.98; cadmium (mg/kg) 5.38-24.98 and lead (mg/kg) ranged from 4.41-22.27. The results revealed that treatment option (consortium) AB was more efficient in remediating the contaminated soil. The phytotoxicity results showed that the vegetative growth attributes of the maize plant were more prolific in the treated and uncontaminated soil than in untreated soil after 28 days of cultivation. Although, the study indicates that P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius showed good levels of biodegradation potential, the consortium proved to be a better alternative in biodegradation compared to the individual species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gastroprotective Effect of Nanocurcumin Particles against Indomethacin-induced Gastric Ulcer in Mice

Nguyen Thi Hieu Trang, Hoang Le Son

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/36857

Gastroprotective Effect of Nanocurcumin Particles against Indomethacin-induced Gastric Ulcer in Mice

This study aims to investigate the gastroprotective properties of nanocurcumin against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Nanocurcumin particles were prepared by top down method, yielding up to 15% (w/w), and the size was defined less than 100 nm in diameter. The particles were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), dynamic laser light scattering (DLS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Significant gastroprotective properties of prepared nanocurcumin against indomethacin-induced stomach ulcer in mice (20 mg/kg, body weight) was observed by evaluating the levels of LPO, GSH, CAL and total protein in stomach and histological examining stomach of mice. It is believed that nanocurcumin particles are capable of healing mucosal injury inhibiting acid secretion, and reducing free radicals against indomethacin-induced injury stomach in mice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phylogeny and Bioinformatics Study on Leaf Tissue Genes for Selected Elite Cultivars of Plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) in the Rain Forest Ecology of Nigeria

Godwin Michael Ubi, Chioma M. Okolo Adilieje, Nneka Constance Ogbonna, Success Kalu Eni

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/28482

Aims: To show that phylogenetic and bioinformatics study could be very crucial to the survival and adaptation of elite plantain species that are threatened by rapid changes in environment, urbanization, genetic erosion and climate in the rain forest ecology of Nigeria.

Study Design: The study is a survey of elite cultivars of plantain in the rain forest ecology of Nigeria, involving laboratory work and use of genetic analysis software for evaluation.

Place and Duration of Study: The leaf samples were sourced and collected from the rain forest of Nigeria in 2015 and outsourced to South Africa for laboratory DNA extraction and leaf tissue gene sequencing.

Methodology: Apical leaf samples less that 2 day old were collected from each of the 14 elite plantain cultivars, preserved in silica gel nylon and outsourced to South Africa for DNA extraction using the CTAB method and Leaf Tissue genes sequencing using the Sangers method. Sequenced DNA nucleotides were aligned using the Molecular Evolution and Genetic Analysis (MEGA 6.0) software for multiple alignment and ClustalW. Aligned sequenced were pasted in note pad, saved and later pasted in a new window for phylogeny tree construction using the maximum livelihood option. The GOR IV and PHYRE2 softwares were used to determine the secondary and 3D tertiary structure for each elite cultivar.

Results: Phylogenetic and bioinformatics study is very crucial to the survival of these elite plantain cultivars in the study geographical locations, which are being threatened by the rapid changes in environment, urbanization, climate change and emerging pests and disease conditions. The results revealed that the elite plantain cultivars have a rooted phylogenetic tree indicating a common ancestry for all. The phylogeny tree showed two internal ancestors and two descendant relatives for the cultivars. The phylogeny tree showed four clusters with four branches and leaves. There was an OUT group made up of cooking bananas with ABB genome which complemented the other cultivars with AAB genome to give the tree a root. Cultivars in the first cluster showed 100G consensus, those on the second cluster showed 69G consensus while those in the third cluster showed 53G consensus. Results of bioinformatics study revealed that the C-G content of 46.04% was higher in cooking bananas and least 35.26% in Ogoni Red cultivar. Number of amino acids was also higher 221 in cooking bananas and least in Ogoni red. However, number of nucleotide was higher in Enugu plantain and least in cooking bananas. The secondary and 3D tertiary structures of all the elite cultivars showed variations their fold structures as well as in their alpha and beta properties.

Conclusion: Bioinformatics study, alongside a complete knowledge on the phylogeny of the elite plantain cultivars will scale up and promote conservation efforts for plantain germplasm which do not possess seeds for short, medium and long term storage. The study will also provide baseline information on the phylogeny and bio information that will help in the establishment of biodiversity within the plantain germplasm for future research purpose, food security and income generation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Physico-chemical Parameters of Soils in Fallowing Farmlands on the Abundance of Human Infecting Geohelminths in Mgbuitanwo Emohua, Rivers State, Nigeria

Owhoeli Ovutor, Imafidor Helen, Grace D. B. Awi-waadu

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/35814

Assessment of Physico-chemical Parameters of Soils in Fallowing Farmlands on the Abundance of Human Infecting Geohelminths in Mgbuitanwo Emohua, Rivers State, Nigeria

This study was conducted to determine the effects of soil physico-chemical parameters on the abundance of human infecting geohelminths in soils of environments used for open defaecation in Mgbuitanwo Emohua, Rivers State, Nigeria. A total of 240 soil samples were collected randomly from soils found in fallowing Farmlands used for open defaecation in Mgbuitanwo Community in Emohua local Government Area of Rivers State, between the months of January-June 2013 and 2014 respectively. The samples were analysed for temperature, pH, and organic content and Centrifugal flotation method was used to examine the samples for geohelminths. Evaluation after two variations gave an average of 60(50%) of the soil samples as positive for geohelminths as follows; 5 (4.2%), 40(33.3%) and 15(12.5%) for clayey, loamy and sandy soils respectively, with a soil temperature mean of 26.8± 1°C, pH 5.9 ± .5 and soil organic matter 12.4 ± 1%. The effects of these parameters on the geohelminths was statistically significant (P<.05). Eggs and larvae of human infecting geohelminths were recovered Eighty-eight times; Ascaris spp. 31(35.2%), Trichuris spp. 23 (26.1%), Ancylostoma duodenale 18 (20.5%), Strongyloides spp. 4 (4.5%), Enterobius spp. 8(9.1%), Trichostrongylus spp. 2(2.3%) and Schistosoma mansoni 2(2.3%). The high presence of human infecting geohelminths in soils of the study area portends a public health danger. Therefore, combination of sanitation and community health education is a necessary and effective control measure against geohelminths.