Open Access Short communication

Total Phenols, Antioxidant Capacity and Antibacterial Activity of Manuka Honey Extract

Tsz Ching Chau, Richard Owusu-Apenten, Poonam Singh Nigam

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/37101

Total Phenols, Antioxidant Capacity and Antibacterial Activity of Manuka Honey Extract

Aims: To evaluate total phenols content (TPC), antioxidant capacity (TAC) and antibacterial activity of Manuka honey extract (MHE) and to compare such properties with those for unfractionated Manuka honey. 

Study Design:  In vitro study.

Place and Duration of Study: School of Biomedical Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine, UK. Between September 2016 and September 2017.

Methodology: MHE was prepared by solvent extraction using ethyl acetate. TPC was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The iron (III) reducing antioxidant capacity (IRAC) method was used to determine TAC. Antibacterial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion assay and 96-well microtiter plate methods with absorbance measured at 600 nm.

Results: The TPC for MHE was 30-fold higher than the value for Manuka honey (33420 ± 1685 mg vs. 1018 ± 78 mg GAE/kg) while TAC values were ~100-times greater (83,198 ± 7064 vs. 793 ± 104 TEAC, respectively).  Antibacterial activity assessed by disc diffusion for Manuka honey (18.5mm on S. aureus and 20 mm on E. coli) was two times greater than for MHE (9mm for both S. aureus and E. coli). The 96-well microtiter plate assay confirmed the greater antibacterial activity for Manuka honey compared to equal concentrations MHE. 

Conclusion: A polyphenol-rich Manuka honey extract with a high total antioxidant capacity, showed little or no antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus in contrast with unfractionated Manuka honey.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association of Transcription Factor 7 Like 2 (TCF7L2) rs12255372 (G/T) Gene Polymorphism and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Mahmood Hassan Dalhat, Ibrahim Bashiru, Haris Ja’afar Bello, Yusuf Saidu, Abdullahi Yahya Abbas

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/37464

Association of Transcription Factor 7 Like 2 (TCF7L2) rs12255372 (G/T) Gene Polymorphism and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Aim: The rs12255372 of transcription factor 7 like 2 (TCF7L2) was found to be associated with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in different populations worldwide. Therefore in the present study we study the relationship between rs12255372 and T2DM in Pakistani population.

Methodology: The study comprised of 333 T2DM subjects and 234 normoglycemic control. Genotyping was done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).

Results: Logistic regression analysis of allotyped data revealed association of rs12255372 with T2DM (odd ratio [OR] =2.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.68-3.16, P=3.14× 10-8), also significant association (OR=3.03; 95% CI 2.07-4.43, P=1.00× 10-9) was observed in the dominant model (DM). Upon stratified analysis we observed T alleles in females (OR=3.60; 95% CI 1.94-7.13, P=6.70× 10-6) to be more associated with the disease compared to males (OR=1.94; 95% CI 1.32-2.87, P=4.56× 10-4). GT genotypes of both genders support their allelotypes.

Conclusion: The T allele and GT genotype highlight the possible role of rs12255372 in Pakistani T2DM patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Total Phenols, Antioxidant Capacity and Antibacterial Activity of Manuka Honey Chemical Constituents

Graeme Kirkpatrick, Poonam S. Nigam, Richard Owusu-Apenten

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/37242

Aims: To compare the total phenol content, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of methyl syringate (MSY), methylglyoxal (MGO) and phenyllactic acid (PLA) as major components from Manuka honey

Study Design: In-vitro study.

Place and Duration of Study: Nutrition Innovation Centre for Food and Health (NICHE), School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine Campus, between June 2016 and September 2017.

Methodology: Total phenols content (TPC) was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated as 2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical quenching activity  or iron (III) reducing antioxidant capacity (IRAC).  Antibacterial activity was measured using the disc diffusion assay with, E.coli, Bacillus subtilis or Staphylococcus aureus.

Results: The TPC for MSY was 60.8 % gallic acid equivalents (GAE) and significantly higher than 1.6-3.2% GAE observed for MGO or PLA. The antioxidant capacity for MSY (128% to 270% trolox equivalents (TE)) was significantly higher compared with -6% to 4.4%TE for MGO or PLA.  A disc diffusion assay for MGO and PLA showed antibacterial power but MSY had no antibacterial activity.

Conclusion: Methylglyoxal and PLA from Manuka honey showed antibacterial activity but no detectable antioxidant and total phenol character. Methyl syringate, which shows high antioxidant capacity and TPC, had no detectable antibacterial activity. Total phenols content and antioxidant power of Manuka honey is unlikely to be related to its antibacterial activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Genomic Region Governing Yield Related Characters in Soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill Using SNP Markers

O. F. Adewusi, A. C. Odiyi, B. O. Akinyele

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/36290

The present study was carried out to identify the quantitative trait locus (QTL) associated with seed yield related characters in soybean using F2 population. A population of 63 F2 plants were genotyped by 32 SNP markers. Nine QTLs were found to be associated with seed yield related characters (3 QTLs for days to flowering (DTF), 3 QTLs for days to maturity (DTM), 2 QTLs for total pod weight (TPW) and 1 QTL for seed yield (SYP)) and were found located on the linkage group A1 (chromosome 5).  The QTLs for DTF and DTM identified in this study could be regarded as stable QTLs because of their detection in the two years. However, two novel QTLs for days to flowering (DTF) and total pod weight (TPW) on linkage group A1 were identified in the present study.

Open Access Original Research Article

PDMS Flow Cell for Monitoring Bacterial Adhesion Capacity of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Beverages

Assem Abolmaaty, D. M. L. Meyer

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/37682

PDMS Flow Cell for Monitoring Bacterial Adhesion Capacity of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Beverages

Aims: To develop and standardize a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) flow cells for monitoring bacterial adhesion capacity of biofilm formation by Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Beverages industry.

Study Design: PDMS chip was fabricated in house and placed in a metal chamber. The bio-Ferrograph generated different flow rates of bacterial cell suspension in the PDMS cells.

Methodology: PDMS flow cells were used to monitor bacteria adhesion capacity of E. coli O157:H7 inoculated into some beverages. The Effect of fluid flow rate and temperature on bacteria adhesion capacity was studied in order to standardize the system. Buffer system of adhesion was modified by varying the concentrations of PBS, Saline concentrations and PH value. The impact of elapsing time and initial number of bacterial cells were investigated. Fluorescence imaging of biofilm formation was also captured.

Results: Bacterial adhesion capacity reached the maximum at 0.1 ml/min and then dramatically dropped down when fluid flow rate increases. Maximized adhesion capacity occurred with a buffer system of 0.01M Phosphate buffer, 1.0% NaCl, pH 7.5 at 30°C. A complete linear relationship (R2; 0.9956 - 0.9815) occurred between adhesion capacity of E. coli O157:H7 cells and elapsing time of food beverage. This linear relationship would help to predict and study biofilm formation in fluid and beverage industry. Maximum adhesion capacity occurred with beverages at the following order: skim milk followed by apple juice and then grape juice.

Conclusion: PDMS flow cell enables non-destructive, in situ investigation of bacteria adhesion capacity as an initial step for biofilm formation in real time under a wide range of flow rates, nutrient conditions, fluid temperature, and elapsing times. It is inexpensive, simple, disposable, easy-to-use, and can accurately mimic the dynamic flow conditions in beverage industry.