Open Access Case study

Correlating Zinc Phytoaccumulation of Cyperus iria Linn with Soil Chemical Parameters in a Metal Contaminated Soil Amended with Orange Peels

N. Amadi, F. B. G. Tanee, J. O. Osuji

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/37205

Correlating Zinc Phytoaccumulation of Cyperus iria Linn with Soil Chemical Parameters in a Metal Contaminated Soil Amended with Orange Peels

Correlating Zinc phytoaccumulation of Cyperus iria Linn with Soil chemical parameters in a metal contaminated soil amended with orange peels (waste) was investigated at the Center for Ecological Studies, University of Port Harcourt. Zinc contaminated soil (2 kg) was arranged in 4 batches (A, B, C and D) in addition to un-contaminated soil (E). The orange peel amendment was as follows: A (100 g/2 kg), B (200 g/2 kg), C (300 g/2 kg), D (0 g) (control) and E (0 g) (double control). Two seedlings of Cyperus iria were transplanted into all batches were monitored at 8 week interval. Results showed the translocation factor of Zn in Cyperus iria were in the order: D (1.51) > E (1.06) > B &C (0.68) > A (0.51) at 8th week; and D (1.08) > A (1.01) > E (0.97) > C (0.93) > B (0.92) at 16th week. The accumulation factor (AF) and bioconcentration factors (BCF) were > 1. Zinc accumulation was positively correlated with soil organic matter (SOM), Cl-, SO3, NO3-, P, Mg2+ and; SOM, conductivity, pH, anions and cations for root and shoot respectively. Our results suggest that orange peel could improve Cyperus iria Zn accumulation on Zn contaminated soil, but further studies in field conditions are needed.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Assessment of Pleurotus sajor-caju (Oyster Mushroom) Yield Cultivated from Indigenous and Exotic Wood Wastes

O. G. E. Arowosoge, O. S. Abejide, T. A. Nurudeen

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/37093

The study assessed the yield of Pleurotus sajor-caju cultivated from the sawdust of four wood species: Triplochiton scleroxylon and Ceiba petandra (indigenous tree species), Gmelina arborea and Tectona grandis (exotic tree species). The substrates of the four wood species were prepared by mixing 5 kg each of the sawdust of the four wood species with 10% of wheat bran and 1% lime (CaCO3) diluted with 2 L of water; after which 5 g of each substrate was measured and bagged for pasteurization. All bagged substrates were pasteurized at 100°C to 121°C, inoculated with mushroom spawn, and transferred to the mushroom house for ramification. The design used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and each treatment was replicated five times. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and one way analysis of variance. Gmelina arborea, Triplochiton sclereoxylon, and Ceiba petandra attained 100% ramification at six weeks             while Tectona grandis attained 100% ramification at seven weeks. Gmelina arborea had              the highest biological yield (g) of 190.78 g, followed by Triplochiton sclereoxylon (180.25 g) and Ceiba petandra (178.17 g), while Tectona grandis had the least with 107.45 g. The economic yield followed the same trend obtained for the biological yield of all the substrates. Yield varied significantly (P< 0.05) among the four wood substrates. The follow-up test (DMRT) conducted to separate the means at 0.05 probability level showed that the yields from Triplochiton sclereoxylon and Ceiba petandra were not significantly different from each other. The Biological Efficiency (%) were 52.96, 49.92, 51.55 and 29.44 for Gmelina arborea, Triplochiton sclereoxylon, Ceiba petandra and Tectona grandis respectively. This study shows that sawdust from light density wood (Gmelina arborea, Triplochiton sclereoxylon and Ceiba petandra) are better substrates for the cultivation of Pleurotus sajor-caju, while establishing the suitability of indigenous and exotic wood waste              as substrate. The findings of this study is recommended for large scale production of          Pleurotus sajor-caju.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phylogenic Analysis of NRPS and PKS Genes Associated with Antagonistic Micromonospora Rc5 and Streptomyces Ru87 Isolates

Dina H. Amin, Chiara Borsetto, Sahar Tolba, Assem Abolmaaty, Nagwa A. Abdallah, Elizabeth M. H. Wellington

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/37592

Phylogenic Analysis of NRPS and PKS Genes Associated with Antagonistic Micromonospora Rc5 and Streptomyces Ru87 Isolates

Aims: To invistigate phylogenic analysis of NRPS and PKS genes. To discover uncommon and novel types of actinomycetes isolated from Egyptian soils. 

Study Design: Fifty rare actinomycetes were isolated from Egyptian soils and tested for antimicrobial activities. Phylogenic analysis of NRPS and PKS Genes was invistigated with unique isolates. Fosmid genomic libraries were constructed and integrated with NRPS and PKS genes.

Methodoloy: Isolation was conducted using humic acid vitamin agar media and starch casein agar media. They were tested against some food and blood borne pathogens. Screening studies of NRPS and PKS genes were conduected via NRPS/PKS PCR assays, and phylogenetic analysis, and fosmid libraries with positive hits of NRPS and PKS genes as a preliminary step for manipulation of these genes.

Results: Forty rare actinomycetes showed significant antimicrobial activities. Micromonospora Rc5 and Streptomyces Ru87 isolates reported the highest antimicrobial activities and then revealed positive hits of NPRS and PKS genes. Fosmid genomic libraries were successfully constructed and   integrated with NRPS and PKS genes. Adenylation domain of NRPS gene of Micromonospora sp. Rc5 showed high similarity (97%) to Micromonospora haikouensis. Similar domain of Streptomyces sp. Ru87 found identical (100% boost strap) to Streptomyces viridochromogenes, Streptomyces ribosidificus and Streptomyces hygroscopicus. Whereas, NJ phylogenetic tree of PKS gene fragments of both Rc5 and Ru87 isolates were highly distinctive with bootstrap values (70%, 69%, respectively).

Conclusion: These unique isolates harbour phylogenetically divergent PKS gene cluster that is responsible for distinct biochemical pathways of novel antibiotics. To our knowledge, this is first attempt to tackle phylogenic analysis of NRPS and PKS genes and discover uncommon and novel types of actinomycetes isolated from Egyptian soils. These novel isolates may contain unexpected genes, and subsequently, offers a significant contribution for alternative novel antimicrobial compounds in drug discovery.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial and Physicochemical Properties of a Regulated Compost

H. O. Stanley, C. D. Onwukwe

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/37543

Composting is one of the universally accepted methods of waste disposal which has become a waste management option in the developing countries. In this study, which was conducted to assess the microbial population dynamics in regulated compost. Organic wastes (Cassava peel, poultry droppings and grass clippings) was decomposed by selected inoculants (Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., Aspergillus sp., Pleoretus ostreatus and Chlorella vulgaris-green algae). Fourteen perforated plastic pots were used as composting reactors with varying compositions of inoculants in the reactors. Seven set up containing organic waste was autoclaved while the other seven were not autoclaved and sawdust was used as bulking agent. The microbiological and physicochemical parameters of the compost were monitored as the composting proceeded. The microbial population ranged from 1.05 X102 and 4.15 x1011 CFU/g of bacterial count and between 1.05X101 SFU/g and 2.10x107 SFU/g of fungal counts for the un-sterilized samples while the microbial population in the pre-sterilized samples ranged between 1.07X101 and 7.62x1011CFU/g of bacterial count and 1.05 X101SFU/g and 6.32x105 SFU/g of fungal count. The bacterial population showed increase with decreasing total organic carbon, total organic nitrogen, Phosphorus and potassium, with a corresponding increase in conductivity, nitrate and pH. Bacterial population declined as the substrates stabilized and microbial consortium in set six and thirteen were most effective in breaking down the waste with a maximum temperature of 28°C. This study have shown that the consortium of Aspergillus spp. Chlorella vulgaris, Pleoretus ostreatus, Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus spp. could be effectively employed in waste management; as it is able to degrade waste and it is worthy of note that organisms utilize waste as carbon source for the generation of energy required to carry out their decomposition, therefore cleaning up our environments. This decomposed waste could be amended /fortified with nitrogen fixing bacteria to produce a good bio-fertilizer for landscaping and agricultural purposes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaves, Roots and Bark of Jackfruit (Artocapus heterophyllus) from Selected Regions in Kenya and Uganda

Redemtor Awuor Ojwang, Edward K. Muge, Betty Mbatia, Benson Mwanza, Dorington O. Ogoyi

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/37355

Comparative Analysis of Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaves, Roots and Bark of Jackfruit (Artocapus heterophyllus) from Selected Regions in Kenya and Uganda

Aim: To determine and compare the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts of Jackfruit roots, leaves and bark, found in selected regions of Kenya and Uganda.

Study Design: A total of 192 samples of leaves, roots and barks, were obtained from 64 different Jackfruit trees. The samples were then dried and extracted using methanol.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at The University of Nairobi, Chiromo campus, Department of Biochemistry in Nairobi, Kenya. The research was carried out from May 2016 to June 2017.

Methodology: The composition of phenolic and tannin contents were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method. Flavonoids content was determined through the formation of the flavonoids–aluminium complex assay. Antioxidant activity was determined through the DPPH scavenging activity and the reducing power of the extracts.

Results: The phytochemical composition had significant variation at (P=.05) in all the different parts of the plant. The roots had the highest phenolic content (67.37- 59.00 mg/g), while the bark region had the least (38.14 -28.34 mg/g). The flavonoid content was also highest in the roots (10.74 - 7.31 mg/g) and lowest in the bark region (3.09 – 1.49 mg/g). The tannin contents were equally higher in the roots (3.88 - 2.69 mg/g), and lowest in bark (0.93 -0.52 mg/g). The DPPH scavenging activity was also highest in the roots (66 -72%), while that of the bark was (24 - 40%). The reducing power of the roots, leaves and bark ranged from (114.38 – 93.62 µg/ml), (71.63 -67.04 µg/ml) and (54.16 - 33.15 µg/ml) respectively.

Conclusion: The findings suggest that Jackfruit roots, leaves and bark are natural antioxidants and they have significant variation in composition of phytochemical compounds.