Open Access Short Research Article

Evaluation of the Anti-lipid Peroxidative Potential of Ficus capreifolia Leaf Extract Using In-vitro Models

Tetam Jack Gbenenee, Tebekeme Okoko, Ndokiari Boisa

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/37648

Evaluation of the Anti-lipid Peroxidative Potential of Ficus capreifolia Leaf Extract Using In-vitro Models

Aims: To investigate the anti-lipid peroxidation, DPPH radical scavenging and phosphomolybdate reducing abilities of Ficus capreifolia leaf extract.

Study Design: The study was designed to determine the anti-lipid peroxidation ability of the extract on erythrocytes and liver homogenate. Other assays are the DPPH scavenging activity and antioxidant evaluation by reducing phosphomolybdate.

Place and Duration of Study: The work was done in the Department of Chemistry, Rivers State University from May 2016 to August 2016.

Methodology: The effect of Ficus capreifolia extract on hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage and ferrous/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation in bovine liver homogenate were evaluated. Other experiments were performed to determine the total antioxidant activity via phosphomolybdate reduction and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Quercetin was used as the positive control for the reduction of lipid peroxidation in liver while vitamin C was used as the positive control for the other experiments.

Results: The leaf extract significantly ameliorated hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte hemolysis and lipid peroxidation (as indices of erythrocyte damage). The extract also reduced ferrous/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation in bovine liver homogenate. The DPPH scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity via the phosphomolybdate method were also remarkable when compared to vitamin C.

Conclusion: The antioxidant effect of of Ficus capreifolia leaf extract is attributable to the phytochemicals and provides evidence for the traditional use of the plant. This could be exploited both pharmacologically and for nutraceutical preparations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Rice Husk and Melon Shell Wastes as Possible Grain Protectants in Cowpea Storage

R. T. Olorunmota, T. I. Ofuya, J. E. Idoko, B. A. Ogundeji

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/37114

Aims: This study sought to determine the effect of rice husk and melon shell powders and ashes in the control of Callosobruchus maculatus- a storage pest of cowpea.

Study Design: Completely Randomized Design (CRD).

Place and Duration of Study: Entomology Section, Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria; year 2015.

Methodology: Clean cowpea samples were inoculated with five pairs (male and female) of newly emerged Callosobruchus maculatus (a major constraint in the storage of cowpea in the tropics) and treated with powders and ashes of rice husk and melon shell at different levels. Data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis.

Results: Samples treated with rice husk ash (RHA) recorded 100% pest mortality at 1.0-2.0 g/20 g cowpea just like the standard, and followed by melon shell ash (MSA) and rice husk powder (RHP) which gave 93.33 and 70% mortality respectively at 2.0 g/20 g. RHA showed significantly highest percentage oviposition inhibition (P ≤ .05), followed by MSA and RHP.

Conclusion: While the viability of the cowpea seeds was preserved by powders and ashes of melon shell and rice husk used, RHA showed a distinctive protection against C. maculatus. Ashes and powders of agricultural wastes like rice husk and melon shell can therefore be employed as safer alternatives to synthetic insecticides in the control of C. maculatus in cowpea storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cervical Smear Analysis of Women in Cross River State, Nigeria

Ayodele Omotoso, Patience Odusolu, Godstime Irabor, Olukayode Oshatuyi, Wilson Nnenna

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/37620

Background: Cervical cancer is the most common genital malignancy and one of the leading causes of death among the female population. Cervical cancer continues to be with high prevalence among the populace in Africa. It is one of the cancers whose incidence has been drastically reduced due to continuous systematic screening.

Aim: To evaluate the cervical smear analysis of women in Cross river State, Nigeria.

Methodology: This is a cross sectional study of cervical smear of women in 5 out of the 18  local government areas of Cross River State (CRS), Nigeria. These local governments were randomly selected. These local government areas include, Akpabuyo, Biase, Calabar south, Municipality and Akamkpa local government areas. The primary health care centres in each of these five local governments were visited, Pap smear was done for the women who visited these primary health care centre and the results were analysed.

Results: A total of 114 cervical smears were analyzed. The age range of the subjects is between 20-69 years. The mean age in this study is 34.2 years. In all, 7.0% of the cervical smear show squamous intraepithelial lesions out of which 6.14% had low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and 0.9% had high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). Cervical smear that were negative for intraepithelial lesion had a prevalence of 93.0%.

Conclusion: The prevalence of squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) is relatively high in semi-rural areas in Cross River State and there is urgent need for improvement in screening programs in order to reduce the incidence rate of the cervical cancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Agitation on the Propagation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the Process of Manufacturing Artisan Beers

Ana Cláudia Chesca, Flávio Araújo Pousa Paiva, José Roberto D. Finzer

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/37980

Aims: In view of the growth of the production of artisan beers and the influence of aeration on microbial growth, this work aimed to show the importance of approaching the transfer of oxygen in aerobic fermentation processes.

Study Design: In this study the agitation in the propagation of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the artisan brewing process was carried out, as it is of fundamental importance to consider the function of oxygen in the control of the metabolism and growth of the yeast.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Food Microbiology, University of Uberaba, between June 2016 and July 2016.

Methodology: The research was carried out at the Laboratory of Microbiology of Food and for the propagation, a dry malt extract (DME) was used, which is basically obtained by the hydrolysis of the raw and malted barley, and then subjected to concentration, vacuum dehydration and milling. For the fermentation process, the lyophilized yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Fermentis® brand, safarine strain US-05®, with the initial concentration of 19 x 109 cells per gram, was used in 11.5 g sachets, as indicated by provider. The strain was obtained from a specialist trade and is a neutral American yeast with no ester and high tolerance to alcohol. The wort, with an initial density of 1.035 g.cm-3, was prepared by dissolving 45 g of DME in 450 mL of boiling water and after 15 minutes of boiling it was cooled to 25°C. This procedure was repeated twice by obtaining propagation means 1 and 2. The yeast 11.5 g volume was divided into two portions and each portion was hydrated in 50 mL of distilled water at room temperature and inoculated into the propagation media 1 and 2. Sample 1 was shaken on a Nova Ethics® Kline shaker with rotation set at 120 RPMs for 10 hours. Sample 2 was rested and homogenized for collection every 1 hour for 10 hours. The determination of the cellular concentration (cel/mL) was performed in Neubauer chamber (1/400 mm2 x 1/10 mm) and for the determination of viable and non-viable cells, the International Coloring Method was used, using methylene blue as described in the methodology proposed by ASBC (1996). Viability is given by the ratio of viable cells to total cells.

Results: The system that remained with constant agitation has a growth approximately 15% greater than the system without agitation.

Conclusion: From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the propagation of yeast cells plays a fundamental role in the production of beers, whether homemade or industrial, because it increases the amount of viable cells, making the fermentation more intense. Agitation accelerates the consumption of substrate and, consequently, cell multiplication, besides increasing cell viability, which is fundamental for fermentation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Computational Analysis of Evolutionary Relationship of a Family of Cold Shock Proteins in Ten Mammalian Species

E. A. Okon, E. V. Ikpeme, O. U. Udensi, E. E. Ekerette, H. E. Etta, E. P. Willie, M. Ozoje

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/36326

Aims: This study was carried out to evaluate the evolutionary relationship of a family of cold shock proteins (CSP) in ten mammalian species using bioinformatics tools and soft wares such as Genbank, FASTA, BLAST and MEGA 5.

Sample: Twenty protein sequences of both RBM3 and CIRP proteins of some selected mammalian species were downloaded from NCBI database.

Study Design: Computational analysis to evaluate the evolutionary relationship of the CSP was carried out by estimating the phylogenic relationship of CSP in the different mammalian species studied.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at the Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, Calabar.

Methodology: The molecular evolution and genetic analysis, version 5 (MEGA 5) software was used to determine the evolutionary relationship of both CIRP and RBM3 in the ten mammalian species studied by constructing phylogenic tree using the amino acid sequences of protein retrieved from NCBI.

Results: The highest identity (100%) was observed between Ovis aries and Bos Taurus; Rattus norvegicus and Mus-musculus while the least percentage identity was observed between Pan troglodytes and Bos taurus (84%). The phylogenic relationship using UPGMA based on Jones-Taylor-Thornton (JTT) matrix model revealed high relationship.

Conclusion: It was observed that evolutionary relationship of CIRP and RBM3 revealed high relatedness among the mammalian species studied.