Open Access Original Research Article

Phenotypic Evaluation of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Genotypes to Cassava Mosaic Virus by Mechanical Methods of Transmission

Jerome Anani Houngue, Gilles Habib Todjro Cacaï, Justin S. Pita, Martine Zandjanakou -Tachin, Edwige Fougnigué Yeo, Corneille Ahanhanzo

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/38149

Aims: Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), subsistence crop in sub-Saharan Africa was threatened by cassava mosaic virus that caused a devastated disease. This study aims to test thermotherapy as sanitation method in mechanical transmission study of cassava mosaic virus.

Methodology: Cuttings of different cultivars were treated by heating during two hours and twenty four hours at 50°C before potting. Four mechanical techniques of virus transmission were used. Contact technique consisting to put an infected plant with a healthy plant together by one junction point and the graft technique involved the grafting of axillary buds of diseased plants to healthy plants. Latex technique consisted of passing the latex from the infected plants on the injured healthy plants several times and sap technique involved the injection of inoculum prepared from the infected leaves to the healthy plants.

Results: Four cultivars had a sprouted rate superior to 80% by two hours of heating and less than 50% by 24 hours of heating. The bands related to ACMV or EACMV were not observed in the samples of different cultivars. Seventy five per cent (75%) of plants inoculated by contact technique had a perfect adhesion with 65% of plants expressing the mosaic symptoms. Six plants out of fourteen (6/14) of the plants of Hombete inoculated with latex expressed the disease symptoms and three plants out of ten (3/10) of the plants of Ornania expressed the disease symptoms. Hundred per cent (100%) of the plants of Djadjakor inoculated by grafting expressed the disease symptoms. Any plants of Atinwewe and Adjatidaho inoculated by Sap technique did not express the disease symptoms.

Conclusion: These results suggest that heat is effective for virus elimination and grafting constitutes the mechanical transmission technique which can be used to screen cassava germplasm for virus resistance.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Rapid Regeneration of Betel Vine (Piper betle L.)

Md. Mahabub Elahi, Homayra Huq, M. E. Hoque, Fahima Khatun

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/38630

In vitro Rapid Regeneration of Betel Vine

(Piper betle L.)

The experiment was conducted on betel vine (Piper betle L.) for in vitro regeneration in Biotechnology Lab. of the Department of Biotechnology, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Bangladesh from the period of July 2014 to April 2015 to investigate the effect of BA, KIN, IAA and IBA in MS medium, where nodal segment was used as explants. The highest percent of shoot proliferation (70%) was achieved with 1.5 mg/L BA + 3.0 mg/L KIN whereas the highest number of shoots and leaves were obtained in 1.0 mg/L BA + 3.0 mg/L KIN. The maximum 14.40 roots/explants were observed with 3.0 mg/L IBA compare with IAA. For hardening the regenerated plantlets were transferred to growth chamber where maximum survival rate (90%) was observed whereas 75% plantlets were survived in shade house in soil which was higher than in open atmosphere (50%).This experiment can be used as a reliable protocol for in vitro regeneration of betel vine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Malaria Parasitaemia in Three Selected Local Government Areas of Niger State, North Central, Nigeria

H. A. Edogun, G. O. Daramola, C. O. Esan, I. D. Edungbola

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/37884

Prevalence of Malaria Parasitaemia in Three Selected Local Government Areas of Niger State, North Central, Nigeria

Introduction: Malaria- a parasitic protozoan infection, caused by Plasmodium species- is a major public health challenge in Africa. Aside hundreds of thousands of annual deaths attributable to malaria, lots of valuable man-hours- that could otherwise be put to some productive endeavours- are wasted in hospital visits and waiting time in clinics. An estimated 81% of all annual global malaria cases, as well as 91% of all global deaths that are due to malaria, occur in Africa. Therefore, the monitoring of prevalence of malaria parasitaemia is an integral part of any preventive and control measure put in place to curb the spread of malaria.

Materials and Methods: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in three selected local government areas (LGA) of Niger State, north central, Nigeria. A total of 930 subjects were sampled from Borgu, Mashegu and Magama LGAs of Niger State. Out of these, 504(54.2%) were males, while 426(45.8%) were females. Twenty-two percent, 27.1%, 22%, 5.3%, 4.7%, 6.3%, 4.5% 3.7% and 4.4% were within the 1-5 years, 6-10, 11-15, 16-20, 21-25, 26-30, 31-35, 36-40 and >40 years age-groups respectively. The subjects were requested to complete questionnaires (self-administered for the literate ones but interviewer-administered for those who could not read and write. Also 0.5mL of capillary blood samples was collected from each of them. Thick and thin blood films of the samples were stained with Giemsa and the stained slides were microscopically examined for the presence or absence of the asexual stages of Plasmodium spp.

Results: The study recorded an overall prevalence of 51.9%. The females had a higher prevalence (53.3%) than the males (50.8%). Among the various age-groups, 1-5 years, 6-10, 11-15, 16-20, 21-25, 26-30, 31-35, 36-40 and >40 years age-groups, the following prevalences respectively were recorded; 74.6%, 48.4%, 46.8%, 46.9%, 45.5%, 44.8%, 45.2%, 41.2% and 24.4%. No statistically significant (p>0.05) differences in prevalence were found among the various occupational groups of the subjects; students (47.9), farmers (57.7%), fishermen (64.9%), cattle-rearers (57.3%) and dependants/ full-time house-wives (60%). However, a statistically significant difference in prevalence (p<0.05) was discovered between subjects who lived in thatched-roof houses and those who lived in houses with corrugated iron roofing sheets. Prevalence was also significantly higher (p<0.05) among subjects who had no formal education. From the findings of the study, one out of every two subjects had malaria parasitaemia. If this is extrapolated to the entire communities of Borgu, Mashegu and Magama LGAs, it means greater than half (51.9%) of the general populace are infected with malaria.

Conclusion and Suggestions: It is therefore recommended that the government of Niger State and the chairmen of these three LGAs should immediately put measures in place to curb and curtail the spread of malaria in these rural communities.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Evolution of Lipid Oxidation in Syrian Olive Oil under Irradiation and Storage

Mahfouz Al-Bachir, Abeer Koudsi

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/38271

Evolution of Lipid Oxidation in Syrian Olive Oil under Irradiation and Storage

Aims: The current study examines variations in Syrian olive oil (SOO) after gamma irradiation treatment and during storage.

Study Design: Four irradiation treatments (0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy) were distributed in a completely randomized design with three replicates. 

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted during 2009/2010 growing season of Kaissy olive fruits produced at Deer Al Hajar research station, Damascus, Syria.

Methodology: Measurements of selected chemical values involving, acidity value (AV), peroxide value (PV), Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) malondialdehyde value (MDA), iodine value (IV) and saponification (specification) value (SV) and selected physical values namely refractive index (RI) and viscosity were carried out  using standard methods.

Results: Results revealed that the levels of the analyzed parameters was within the limits established by codex standard for the highest quality category "extra virgin" olive oils (EVOO). Gamma irradiation statistically (P <0.01) influenced AV, PV, IV, SV and viscosity of olive oils. AV, OV and MDA increased (P <0.01), while SV deceased (P <0.01) by irradiation. The lowest dose gave highest and the highest dose gives the lowest values of AV and PV. Also storage time had a significant influence on all analyzed parameters. AV and PV increased during storage time, and a maximum increase in AV (1.01%) was observed in olive oil that was treated with lowest irradiation dose.

Conclusion: Both irradiation treatment and storage time had a significant (P <0.01) effect on most of the measured chemical and physical parameters (AV, PV, MDA value, IV, SV, RI and viscosity) of EVOO.

Open Access Review Article

Treat Oculocutaneous Albinism with Gene Therapy

Martin L. Nelwan

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/38504

Treat Oculocutaneous Albinism with Gene Therapy

Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a group of hereditary recessive disorder recognized as a loss of pigmentation. OCA can derive from mutations in different genes that produce melanin. These mutations cause disturbances to get a standard melanin synthesis. There are 7 types of oculocutaneous albinism. These include OCA1, OCA2, OCA3, OCA4, OCA5, OCA6, and OCA7. To help OCA patients, it may include management of such as hats with brims and sunscreens. An effective therapy is unavailable for albinism at present. However, to fight OCA in the future, gene therapy can be used. Gene therapy can include use of such as retrovirus vectors, adenovirus vectors, and CRISPR/Cas9 system. Research results in animal models have shown remarkable advances. It means that the gene therapy will be helpful to treat people with albinism.