Open Access Original Research Article

Relationships among Phenotypic Traits of Giant African Land Snails in Western region of Nigeria

O. M. Etukudo, E. E. Ekerette, A. J. Umoyen

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/35066

Relationships among Phenotypic Traits of Giant African Land Snails in Western region of Nigeria

The relatedness among three populations (A. achatina, A. fulica and A. marginata) of giant African land snails, a highly relished source of protein in West Africa was studied.  Three hundred (300) matured snails consisting of one hundred (100) each of A. achatina, A. fulica and A. marginata collected randomly from three locations in Western region of Nigeria were used to evaluate the relationships among phenotypic traits. The results of the mean body weight and shell traits (body weight, shell length, shell width, shell ‘mouth’ length and shell ‘mouth’ width) studied showed highly significant differences (P< 0.05). Phenotypic correlations among the pairs of traits showed positive, strong and highly significant (P< 0.01) correlation coefficients (rp). Similarly, the clustering of the phenotypic traits also showed that the three populations were divided into two major groups with A. marginata being more closely related to A. achatina than A. fulica. The body traits studied was grouped into one principal component with a total variability of 98.75%. This study revealed phenotypic differences among the species of snails used.

Open Access Original Research Article

Safety and Functional Aspects of Selected Probiotic Lactobacilli Strains from Water of Cassava’s Fermentation

Marius Edith Kouam Foko, François Ngoufack Zambou, Pierre Marie Kaktcham, Wang Rui Yanb, Zhu Taichengc, Yin Lic

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/39202

Safety and Functional Aspects of Selected Probiotic Lactobacilli Strains from Water of Cassava’s Fermentation

Many Lactobacilli isolated from foods present probiotic properties, but some of them have been linked to possible clinical cases. Therefore, it is necessary to verify their safety before probiotic use. Our previous works have demonstrated acid and bile tolerances of Lactobacilli strains from the water of cassava's fermentation, without regard to the molecular basis of these resistances or the safety and adhesive aspects of the isolates. This study aimed to investigate the genotypic basis of acid and bile tolerance, safety and adhesion properties of eight probiotic Lactobacilli. The functional properties of their bile salt hydrolases were also studied. All strains were screened for gtf (acid and bile tolerance), clpL (acid and bile tolerance) and hdc (biogenic amine production) genes and investigated for hydrophobicity, co-aggregation and auto-aggregation. Moreover, hemolytic and gelatinase abilities, as well as antibiotic susceptibility, were examined for safety properties assessment. The eight selected strains were found to possess the clpL gene in their genome.  They also showed excellent cell surface characteristics testifying their good adhesion and colonisation abilities. On the other hand, they were free from virulence factors (hemolytic and gelatinase activities), do not showed antibiotic resistance, and do not possess the hdc gene, a confirmation of their safe character for probiotic applications. The most promising probiotic candidates based on Principal Component Analysis were L. paracasei 62L (accession number: KU886178), L. Plantarum 84L (KU886185) and 86L (KU886187) with good auto and co-aggregation properties. The study of the predicted structure of L. Plantarum 86L bile salt hydrolase revealed that it has a structural similarity with previously identified bile salt hydrolases which substrate preference is glyco-conjugated bile. The Lactobacilli from the water of cassava's fermentation have exciting cell surface characteristics and are safe for probiotic applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Use of Plant Dyes for Microbial Staining and Identification: An Eco-friendly and Non-Toxic Alternative Method

S. M. Adeyemo, A. J. Akinloye, G. B. Adekanmi

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/35014

The Use of Plant Dyes for Microbial Staining and Identification: An Eco-friendly and Non-Toxic Alternative Method

Staining of microbial cells is a very important procedure in microbial identification. Cells need to be fixed and stained to increase visibility, accentuate morphological features and for preservation. The study was carried out to explore the efficiency of natural dyes from four different plants which can be used to stain bacterial cells.

Plant extracts which has been processed into dyes namely Enantia chlorantha, Harungana madagascariensis, Sphenocentrum jollyanum and Sarcocephalus latifolius were obtained from Botany Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria. They were used to stain some Gram positive and negative bacterial cells. The dyes were extracted with Soxhlet apparatus using ethanol as solvent.

The physiological features observed were compared with features of microorganisms that were stained with synthetic dyes when viewed under Olympus microscope at X100.

The dye from Harungana madagascariensis imparted its dark brown colour on the microbial cells within few seconds of application. A dark yellowish-brown dye from Sarcocephalus latifolius imparted a pinkish coloration on Gram negative organisms. Dye from Enantia chlorantha imparted light brownish colouration on Gram positive and light pink on Gram negative organisms. The dark yellow dye from Sphenocentrum jollyanum bark imparted greenish brown colouration on both Gram positive and light brown on Gram negative organisms. The best of the four dyes, Enantia chlorantha exerted a high fastness property which was seen when the slides were viewed.

The dyes from the plants when oxidized could be used as a suitable substitute for staining microorganisms. The procedure is simple, cheap, readily available and can be prepared easily. The applications and use of these natural dyes are found to be biodegradable, non-toxic and eco-friendly.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution of Some Heavy Metals in the Tissues of Arm, Thigh, Kidney and Liver after Continuous Feeding of Rabbits with Diet Contaminated with Crude Oil

J. M. Omoyakhi, O. Edo-Taiwo, J. I. Aleke, T. J. John

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/37979

Distribution of Some Heavy Metals in the Tissues of Arm, Thigh, Kidney and Liver after Continuous Feeding of Rabbits with Diet Contaminated

with Crude Oil

Aims: This experiment was conducted to assess the distribution of these heavy metals in the tissues of rabbits from the continuous feeding of diets contaminated with crude oil.

Study Design: Completely randomized design (CRD).

Place and Duration of Study: University of Benin Teaching and Research Farm for a period of 9 months. 

Methodology: The experiment was carried out using 40 rabbits of New Zealand breed obtained from the University of Benin Teaching and Research Farm, Nigeria. The rabbits were divided into four treatments with each treatment having ten replicates. A single diet was formulated based on the nutrient requirement of growing rabbits and partitioned into Diets A, B, C and D with 0, 15, 30 and 45 mL of crude oil added to every 3 kg of the feed. Analysis of heavy metals in the tissues was based on standard procedures.

Results: The highest level of cobalt recorded in the arm was found among the highest dosed rabbits (45 mL) which differed significantly from the groups that received lower or no dosage. No traces of nickel and cadmium were found in any of the tissues. The dose-related increase in the distribution of lead and copper in the thigh was observed. Generally, the kidney and liver had an increasing accumulation of the heavy metals with increasing crude oil contamination in the diets except for nickel and cadmium that were not also detected.

Conclusion: It was therefore concluded that crude oil ingestion could result in increased accumulation of heavy metals in the tissues of arm, thigh, kidney and liver of growing rabbits.

Open Access Review Article

Techniques for the Enrichment of Micronutrients in Crops through Biofortification: A Review

Noor-ul-Huda ., Ambash Riaz, Ali Abbas, Shahid Raza

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/35446

Deficiency of micronutrients such as iron, zinc, selenium and vitamin A affect human health  globally.  This deficiency is being controlled by supplementation and nutrient fortification,      however, new alternatives are needed to fulfill the optimum nutrient requirement especially in rural poor areas. Biofortification, enrichment of micronutrients in staple food by plant breeding, is an alternative which looks promising. Laboratory experiments show that biofortification is possible without damaging agronomic productivity. Analysis of predictive cost-benefit also support the benefits of biofortification and emphasize on its importance in the armamentarium for managing deficiency of micronutrient. The challenge to overcome is to convince consumer and producers to accept biofortified crops. This study focuses on the techniques that can be used to produced biofortified crops.