Open Access Minireview Article

A Review on Algal Plasmid DNA

S. R. Sivakumar, A. Azhivaendhan

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-3
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/37659

A Review on Algal Plasmid DNA

Plasmid plays a crucial role in molecular biotechnology as vectors. Once it is believed that plasmids are found only in prokaryotes but the development in molecular Bio-technology proves that plasmids are also found in eukaryotes such as yeasts and some algae. Several researches are carried out to isolate the plasmid DNA from both micro and macro algae. This review gives an overview about the plasmid DNA of various Algae.

Open Access Original Research Article

Infraspecific Variations and Similarities among Onion (Allium cepa L.) Varieties Using Floral and Palynological Markers

Daniel A. Zhigila, Fatima B. J. Sawa, Usman A. Yuguda, Elisha Karu, Isma’ila Muhammad, Aderiike Adewumi

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/37361

Infraspecific Variations and Similarities among Onion (Allium cepa L.) Varieties Using Floral

and Palynological Markers

Efficient utilization of plant genetic resources for nutrition and crop improvement requires systematic understanding of the important traits. Despite the potentials of onions to enhance food security and economic livelihoods, systematic information about it by farmers in sub-Saharan Africa is scanty. Eight onion varieties namely Ex-Dutsi, Ex-Huguma, Ex-Kudan, Ex-Kura, Ex-Kwadon, Ex-Romi, Waɓe and Wuyan Bijimi were cultivated under field experiment using a randomized complete block design with five replications and their pollen grains collected, acetolysed and fixed during flowering to compare their palynological features. Results obtained showed low infraspecific variations in the eight varieties. Two types of pollen aperture (mococolpoate and inaperturate), spherical shape with microreticulate sculpture were observed in all the varieties using light microscope. Variety ‘Wuyan-bijimi and Ex-Romi recorded the highest percentage occurrence of monocolpoate pollen (92%) but with the lowest percentage occurrence of inaperturate pollen (8%). DMRT of monocolpate density indicated that Waɓe was significantly different (p≤0.05), it had 56.60±2.52 (mm2) while the lowest density was recorded by Ex-Dutsi (15.40±2.18 mm2). Varieties Ex-Dutsi and Ex-Kura not significantly different but otherwise with other varities by the peduncle diameter. Numbers of anther and peduncle length are not good diagnostic characters among the varieties. There was no significant difference recorded in the pollen polar length, equatorial diameter, and exine thickness among the varieties. Multivariate analysis showed three principal components contributing 21.53% of observed variability, while cluster analysis yielded two groups (Ex-Kwadon, Ex-Kura, Ex-Romi and Wuyan-bijimi in cluster 1 while Ex-Dutsi, Ex-Huguma, Ex-Kudan and Waɓe formed cluster 2) at 89.7% similarity coefficient.  Varieties in the different clusters obtained can be exploited for desired nutritional traits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Physicochemical and Nutritional Contents in Soybean Fermented Food Tempeh by Rhizopus oligosporus

Arifa Tahir, Maria Anwar, Hira Mubeen, Shahid Raza

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/26770

Evaluation of Physicochemical and Nutritional Contents in Soybean Fermented Food Tempeh by Rhizopus oligosporus

Rhizopus oligosporus is considered as most preferred species in tempeh fermentation among the tempeh culture on top of it is most widely used and one of the known molds in vegetal substrates fermentation. A fermented product “Tempeh” was prepared using mixed culture fermentation of soaked and cooked soybeans or cereal grains by means of diverse group of microflora like bacteria, yeasts and molds. Rhizopus oligosporus, NRRL-2710 was used for the preparation of tempeh. The culture was maintained on potato dextrose agar media prepared by adding 3.8 grams PDA in 100 ml distilled water followed by heating. The culture was incubated at 30-37ºC in an oven for 24 hours and then stored in refrigerator at 4ºC. Soya beans soaked overnight were boiled for 10-15 minutes. The hot beans were spread in a thin layer and cooled to room temperature then they were inoculated with a spore suspension of R. oligosporus. The inoculated soya beans were packed firmly in perforated plastic bags, and incubated at 30ºC for 24 h, yielding fresh tempeh. The physicochemical characteristics and nutritional content in soybean fermented food tempeh were then assessed. Filamentous fungi are used in the preparation of fermented foods to improve the taste and the nutritional value of the product. The aim of the study was to verify the viability of Rhizopus oligosporus in soybean fermented food tempeh. Tempeh is a striking product from sensual, health and cost-effective points of view. The present work determined the sensory analysis and nutritional viability evaluated the effects of pH, temperature, relative humidity, aeration, moisture and ash contents, inoculums size, shelf life and its mineral values including protein, carbohydrate and lipid content. The mold growth was rapid at 30ºC. When R. oligosporus was inoculated at approximately 104 spores/g moist substrate, a tempeh cake with dense mycelial growth was obtained.

Open Access Original Research Article

Introgression of Stem Rust Resistance into Popular Kenyan Wheat Varieties to Improve Production

Tubei E. Jackline, Fredrick M. Njoka, Omwoyo Ombori, Peter N. Njau

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/38609

Introgression of Stem Rust Resistance into Popular Kenyan Wheat Varieties to Improve Production

Aim:  The objective of this study was to assess the introgression of the stem rust resistance genes into the BC1F1 plants using molecular markers.

Place and Duration of Study: Field experiments were carried out in a nursery, at Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO) Njoro Centre, Nakuru, Kenya at 0.3ºS and 35.9ºE and 2185 m above sea level from June 2012 to December 2013. Laboratory work was carried out in the Biotechnology laboratory, KALRO Njoro.

Methodology: Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplifications were carried out to assess the introgression of stem rust resistance genes into the BC1F1 plants. Analysis of genetic variation was done at each locus in terms of the number of alleles observed, heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, Shannon's diversity index, genetic diversity and gene frequency using genetic analysis package POPGENE Version 1.32. The neighbouring joining method was used to construct a dendrogram from a distance matrix based on Sokal and Michener’s genetic distances, using MEGA4 software 1in Power Marker 3.25. 

Results:  Amplification using PCR showed that wheat BC1F1 plants accessions NP3, NP12, NP89, NP163, NP192 and Kingbird were positive for the Lr34 gene while the susceptible plants and Njoro Bw2 were negative. Evaluation done on three molecular markers showed that CSLV34 was polymorphic across the BC1F1 plant accessions with a total of 2 alleles per locus. The 17 wheat BC1F1 plant accessions and their parents (Njoro Bw2 and Kingbird) were placed into 2 clusters using the markers as a result of introgression, considering that the clustering in this study was purposively based on the presence or absence of the resistance genes. This indicates that the Lr34 gene which is an APR gene was successfully introgressed into five BC1F1 accession plants (NP3, NP12, NP89, NP163 and NP192).

Conclusion: The resistant BC1F1 accession plants (NP3, NP12, NP89, NP163 and NP192) showed success in the introgression of the Lr34 gene that gives resistance to stem rust at adult plant stage together with other minor genes including Sr2 and Lr46. These can further be developed in the field, multiplied and the seeds distributed to the farmers as they showed low disease severity to stem rust disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Investigation of the Haematological Alterations Associated with Malaria-Infected Adults in Aba, South Eastern Nigeria

J. C. Ozougwu

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/38398

An Investigation of the Haematological Alterations Associated with Malaria-Infected Adults in Aba, South Eastern Nigeria

This study was designed to determine the haematological alterations associated with male and female malaria patients. Thick and thin Giemsa stained blood films were made on a slide from 2ml of venous 100 blood samples collected and viewed under a light microscope. Forty (40) samples were selected by a simple random sampling of patients aged between 21 to 60 years, made up of four experimental groups which included ten malaria positive males (MPM), ten malaria negative males (MNM), ten malaria positive females (MPF) and ten malaria negative females (MNF). The haematological parameters were evaluated using Sysmex KX-21N automated haematology analyzer. The result of the hematological alterations associated with male malaria patients showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the mean value of WBC of the malaria positive male patients compared to the control and an insignificant increase in the HCT whereas there was significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the mean values of HGB, RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC and PLT of malaria positive male patients compared to the control. Similarly, the results of the female patients showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the mean values of HCT, HGB, RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC and PLT of malaria positive female patients compared to the control but a significant increase in WBC. From the finding of this study, it can be concluded that malaria may lead to anaemia and thrombocytopenia in both males and females but malaria may not lead to leucopenia and immune deficiency in both males and females. Further studies should be carried out to pinpoint the findings of this study to pursue it for its clinical relevance in the diagnosis and management malaria. If the relationship between malaria and haematological parameters are clearly established, it might be helpful to the development of a malaria vaccine in the nearest future.