Open Access Case study

Premature Parturition in a Female Dog with Visceral Leishmaniasis: Case Report

Luanna Soares de Melo Evangelista, Marcos Antônio Celestino de Sousa Filho

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/40283

Premature Parturition in a Female Dog with Visceral Leishmaniasis: Case Report

Background: The visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a parasitic disease that affects dogs usually transmitted by the presence of the vector, but other forms of transmission have already been reported, including the possibility of vertical transmission.

Case: This article reports the case of a Schnauzer female dog, two years and six months old, presenting apathy and weight loss in which the diagnosis for VL was suggested, confirming the positivity during pregnancy. Clinical and laboratorial findings were aggravated during gestation with the occurrence of preterm delivery at fifty days of coverage.

Discussion: Despite the scarcity of reports in the literature about the possibility of vertical transmission of the disease in canines, the presence of amastigote forms of Leishmania sp. in the uterus, vagina, vulva and mammary gland have been reported.

Conclusion: It is worth noting that female dogs parasitized with the disease should be removed from reproduction for treatment, as the disease may alter the general clinical picture of the animal and compromise the development of the fetuses, causing premature parturition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sources of Microbial Contaminants in Biosafety Laboratories in Kenya

Dennis N. Mose, Omwoyo Ombori, Mgutu J. Allan, Paul Okemo

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/38583

Sources of Microbial Contaminants in Biosafety Laboratories in Kenya

Aims: The study was aimed at isolating and identifying microbial contaminants in biosafety labs in Kenya.

Place and Duration of Study: The bacterial isolates were obtained from biosafety level II laboratories in Kenya (International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), the Kenya Agriculture and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO) Biotechnology center, Nairobi and Kenyatta University Plant Transformation Laboratory (KUPTL). The research was carried out between January 2016 and August 2016.

Methodology: Bacterial and fungal contaminants were isolated from different areas from the biosafety laboratories to Nutrient Agar (NA) and Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA). Nutrient Agar (NA) was incubated at 37°C for 24 h for bacterial growth and 25°C for 72 h for fungal growth. Four swabs were done on each site. Then the bacteria were restreaked to specific and differential media to allow for growth. Biochemical tests were done for confirmation of the isolates. The isolates were identified using morphological identifications.

Results: Thirteen microbial contaminants (consisting of seven bacteria and six fungi) were isolated. All sites tested contained both bacterial and fungal isolates, and there were no sites which were negative for both bacteria and fungi. The rate of occurrence of bacterial isolates was higher than that of fungal isolates. All sites were positive for more than one bacterium. Statistically, there was a significant difference between the mean fungal and mean bacterial count as the extent of contamination was concerned among the laboratories

Conclusion: The studies revealed that most biosafety laboratories in Kenya are contaminated with a wide variety of potentially pathogenic bacteria and harmful fungus. Bacterial contamination remains a continuing threat in biosafety laboratories, but techniques for reducing contamination are available. Laboratories must assess their situation, determine contamination sources, and change their laboratory operations to avoid or eliminate most of the contaminants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Insilico Analysis of Myostatin Gene in Selected Poultry Species

Muslim K. Ewuola, M. Omolara Akinyemi, H. Osamede Osaiyuwu

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/39520

Insilico Analysis of Myostatin Gene in Selected Poultry Species

Myostatin gene (GDF8) is a member of transforming growth- superfamily and has been reported to act as a negative regular of skeletal muscle during myogenesis, regulation of adipocyte function in livestock species. This study was carried out to computationally investigate molecular genetic variation and categorize precise mutation in myostation gene in selected poultry species at the studied locus. A total of twenty (20) myostatin nucleotide sequences consisting of chicken (12), quail (4) and turkey (4) were retrieved from the GenBank. Functional analysis of nsSNP using PROVEAN showed three amino acid substitutions (P20Q, Y11F and G3R) in chicken, one in quail (Y100R) and three in turkey (N65P, F155W and K95A) were all returned neutral, suggesting their beneficial impacts. The information from nucleotides sequences showed the interclustering and close relatedness of members of phasianidae family (chicken, quail and turkey).

Open Access Original Research Article

Non-target Insects Captured in McPhail Traps Baited with Proteinaceous and Salts in Citrus Crop

Leonardo Tambones Galdino, Adalton Raga

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/39599

Non-target Insects Captured in McPhail Traps Baited with Proteinaceous and Salts in Citrus Crop

Introduction: Traps baited with food attractants are commonly used for monitoring or mass trapping of fruit flies in many crops. The use of attractive food has a limitation in terms of catching non-target organisms. Attractives used alone or in combination may reduce the capture of non-target insects. Therefore, the mass trapping system in fruit crops can potentially impact negatively on the environment.

Materials and Methods: A test was conducted in an orange orchard situated in the municipality of Mogi Mirim, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The following fruit fly lures were disposed into McPhail traps exposed to non-target insects for 55 days: 1) the liquid protein Cera trap®; 2) Cera trap® + Acetone; 3) Cera trap® + Ammonium phosphate dibasic (APD); 4) Cera trap® + Brazilian orange oilphase essence (BOE); 5) Cera trap® + Trimetylamine (TMA); 6) TMA; and 7) APD + BOE. Except Cera trap®, the other attractants were replaced weekly. Each treatment comprises five replications and each plot contained 35 orange trees. We compared effects of attractants and insects using 2-way ANOVA.

Results: A large number of Diptera specimens were obtained in all attractants, corresponding to 98.12% of the total capture. The majority of flies belonged to the families Drosophilidae, Muscidae and Calliphoridae. The numbers of Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, Neuroptera and Coleoptera insects were similar for each attractant.

Conclusion: The findings of the present work showed no selectivity of Cera trap® even in combination with synthetic lures.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Ecotoxicological Assay of E- waste (Phone Batteries) on Some Aquatic Micro Flora

L. B. Kpormon, S. I. Douglas

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/40421

Comparative Ecotoxicological Assay of E- waste (Phone Batteries) on Some Aquatic Micro Flora

Aim: To determine and compare the effect of used phone batteries on Nitrosomonas spp. in tri aquatic bodies

Study Design: The study employs experimental design and statistical analysis of the data and interpretation.

Place and Duration of Study: Freshwater and Marine samples were collected from Gokana L.G.A, while, a brackish water sample was collected from Eagle Island, all in Rivers state, Nigeria. These samples were transported with ice pack to the Microbiology laboratory of Rivers State University, Port Harcourt within 24 hours for microbiological and toxicity testing. The used phone batteries were purchased from the phone market, Garrison Junction, Port Harcourt. The toxicity testing was done for the duration of 4 hours interval for 24 hours respectively at room temperature.

Methodology: Standard microbiological techniques were used; Toxicity testing procedures were carried out by preparing mobile phone batteries at concentrations of 0%, 5%, 25%, 50% and 75%, tested for durations of 0h, 4h, 8h, 12h and 24h respectively. The cultures were incubated at 35⁰C for 18 to 24 hours. LC50 was determined using SPSS version 20.

Results: The results indicate that percentage logarithm mortality of Nitrosomonas species increases with increased toxicants concentration and exposure time. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the mobile phone batteries increases in the following order: (Note: the higher the LC50, the Lower the toxic effect; Nokia phone battery in marine water (65.97%) <Tecno phone battery in Brackish water (65.84%)<Tecno phone battery in marine water (65.57%)<Nokia phone battery in brackish water (65.47%)<Nokia phone battery in fresh water (64.17%) Tecno phone battery in fresh water (64.13%).

Conclusion: Tecno phone battery in fresh water (LC50 = 64.13%) is the most toxic; having the lowest LC50 while Nokia phone battery in marine water (LC50= 65.97%) has the lowest toxicity effect. These results show that spent phone batteries can inhibit the nitrification process in aquatic ecosystem.