Open Access Original Research Article

Concurrent Improvement of Stem Sugar, Stover and Grain Yield in Sudanese and Exotic Sorghums I: Identification of Materials

Salma I. Abdalbagi, Maarouf I. Mohammed

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/39773

Aims: To identify materials combining high levels of stem sugar, grain and stover yields in local and exotic sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) genotypes.

Methodology: 28 genotypes arranged in three replicated Alpha lattice design and evaluated for stem juice, grain and stover yields and related traits.

Results: The exotic materials showed high potential for sugar yield than the local ones. Blue-ribbon and Red-x demonstrated the best joint performance for brix, extractability, grain, and stover yields. Ank.36 (Ankolib selection) and S.158 (Abu Sabin selection) were the best among local materials in joint performance for extractability and brix showing moderate potential for sugar yield during the summer season. Kambal (Abu Sabin selection) showed the best juice yield among the local materials but suffered from low brix and juice extractability. Some of the local genotypes performed better than the exotic materials during summer in grain, stover and cane yields whereas the opposite is true during the winter season.

Conclusion: The local Ankolib population needs to be improved for juice extractability and cane yield before being used for bioenergy production. The future research work should focus on improving the local materials by hybridization with the exotic ones to transfer traits related to high sugar yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acute and Sub-acute Toxicity Evaluation of Commelina benghalensis (Commelinacaea) and Newbouldia laevis (Bignoniaceae) Ethanol Leaf Extracts in Wistar Rats

A. E. Esom-Ibe, O. O. Ebong, J. S. Aprioku

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/40523

Acute and Sub-acute Toxicity Evaluation of Commelina benghalensis (Commelinacaea) and Newbouldia laevis (Bignoniaceae) Ethanol Leaf Extracts in Wistar Rats

Aim: Commelina benghalensis and Newbouldia laevis are tropical plants which are widely used in ethnomedicine. Acute and subacute toxicity profiles of both plants were herein studied.

Place and Duration Study: This study was conducted at the Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria; between January and July, 2017.

Methodology: Median lethal doses (LD50) of both extracts were determined using Lorke’s method. Forty-two rats were used for the subacute toxicity study. They were divided into 7 equal groups (n=6) and administered C. benghalensis extract (50, 200 or 500 mg/kg) or N. laevis extract (50, 200 or 500 mg/kg) daily by oral gavage for 28 days. The seventh group was given vehicle (distilled water) and used as the control. Blood serum levels of biochemical parameters- aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), albumin, total protein, urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate were quantified by ELISA technique. The kidney, liver and heart were removed and histologically analyzed.

Results: The oral LD50 of C. benghalensis and N. laevis extracts were >5000 mg/kg. Both plants caused reductions of AST and ALP, without having effect on total protein. N. laevis extract also reduced ALT at the highest dose. Serum levels of urea, creatinine, chloride and bicarbonate ions were not affected by both plant extracts. Additionally, sodium ion was reduced by N. laevis, whereas C. benghalensis reduced both sodium and potassium ions. Furthermore, C. benghalensis and N. laevis did not cause histological changes in liver, kidney and heart tissues.

Conclusion: The results indicate that the plant extracts have high levels of safety and will cause no harmful effect on the kidney, liver or heart tissues.

Open Access Original Research Article

Concurrent Improvement of Stem Sugar, Stover and Grain Yield in Sudanese and Exotic Sorghums II: Heritability, Genetic Advance and Association Studies

Maarouf I. Mohammed, Salma I. Abdalbagi

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/39774

Concurrent Improvement of Stem Sugar, Stover and Grain Yield in Sudanese and Exotic Sorghums II: Heritability, Genetic Advance and Association Studies

Aims: To investigate heritability, genetic advance from selection and the possibility of combining high levels of stem sugar with grain and stover yields in one cultivar.

Methodology: Twenty eight exotic and local sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) genotypes arranged in Alpha lattice design were evaluated for stem juice, grain and stover yields and related traits.

Results: Apart from brix and extractability, genotype and environment (G x E) interaction was highly significant for all traits curtailing differences among genotypes and resulting in extremely low values for heritability and related genetic parameters. Analysis of variance performed in each season revealed highly significant differences among genotypes for all traits with medium to high heritability values coupled with high genetic advance from selection. Millable cane yield, stover yield, grain yield/plant, extractability and juice yield are expected to respond better to selection during summer while brix respond better during winter. All of the stem juice traits attributing to sugar yield other than brix were positively associated with grain and stover yield. Brix and grain yield showed weak negative correlation. Plant height and days to flowering showed favorable or at least trouble-free associations with the major productive traits.

Conclusion: The results suggest the importance of seasonal impacts when selecting for traits attributing to stem juice, grain and stover traits. The association study suggests the possibility of incorporating high levels of stem sugars, grain and stover yield in one cultivar.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of the Sensitivity of Crassostrea gigas and Vibrio fischeri (Microtox) for Toxicity Assessment of Produced Water

Chinyere Augusta Ajuzieogu, Lucky Obukowho Odokuma

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/38236

Aim: The toxicity of produced water (untreated and treated) obtained from exploration and production activities of the coast of Nigeria to the oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and a bacterium Vibrio fischeri was assessed. The sensitivity of the toxicity test procedures for both test organisms was assessed.

Study Design: Mortality [Lethal concentration (LC50)] for Crassostrea gigas and Inhibition of bioluminescence (Microtox) by Vibrio fischeri [Effective concentration (EC50)] were the toxicity indices employed for the organisms.

Place and Duration of Study: Biological monitoring department of Halden Laboratories, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, January, 2016.

Methodology: Lethal concentrations (LC50) of C. gigas in produced water generated after 96 hr exposure time were compared with percent reductions in light output by V. fischeri after 15 min exposure time in the microtox assay.

Results: The 15 min EC50 values of the untreated and treated produced water samples for V. fischeri was 1.0% and 23.27% respectively, while 96 hr LC50 values of untreated and treated produced water for C. gigas were greater than 1000 parts per thousand (> 1000 ppt). Microtox test indicated the produced water samples were very toxic after 15 min exposure time, while after 96 hrs exposure time C. gigas was yet to produce a toxic response as > 1000 ppt LC50 indicates no toxicity. The microtox EC50 values were one order of magnitude lower compared to those of C. gigas indicating greater sensitivity of microtox assay.

Conclusion: Findings from this study therefore support the incorporation and application of microtox test system as a rapid and sensitive bioassay tool in the biological monitoring protocol and ecotoxicological evaluation tests in Nigeria’s petroleum industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Diversity and RAPD-Based DNA Fingerprinting of Some Members of the Cucurbitaceae in Nigeria

E. M. I. Roberts, I. O. Agbagwa, B. E. Okoli

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/40081

Genetic Diversity and RAPD-Based DNA Fingerprinting of Some Members of the Cucurbitaceae in Nigeria

The genetic variability and relatedness of 14 species from 12 genera of the Cucurbitaceae, an important horticultural family were examined using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The taxa (Luffa aegyptiaca, Luffa acutangula, Cucumis melo, Cucumis sativus, Telfairia occidentalis, Trichosanthes cucumerina, Cucurbita moschata, Lagenaria breviflora, Cucumeropsis mannii, Zehneria scabra, Melothria scabra, Momordica charantia, Citrullus lanatus and Coccinia barteri) collected randomly from the southern part of Nigeria were genotyped and their systematic interrelationships compared. DNA extracted from silica dried leaves of the species using DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (QIAGEN, Amsterdam, Netherlands) was amplified with fifteen Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA primers. The genetic similarities for the 14 species were estimated from banding profiles as a basis for dendrogram construction via the neighbour joining method conducted under parsimony criteria using DARWin 6 and NTSYS-PC. The RAPDs amplified 317 bands ranging from 120 to 2531bp producing monomorphic and polymorphic bands indicating considerable genetic differences among the studied cucurbit species. The genetic tree revealed circumscription of three major clusters. The first, a heterogeneous cluster comprising two groups with Telfairia occidentalis, Trichosanthes cucumerina and Luffa forming one group, and Cucurbita moschata, Lagenaria breviflora and Cucumeropsis mannii forming a second group. The second cluster consists of three groups; Group I comprised Zehneria scabra and Melothria scabra that clustered separately from Momordica charantia. Group II comprised closely related species Cucumis sativus and Cucumis melo. Group III comprised separately clustered Citrullus lanatus. The third cluster consisted of a group which comprised Coccinia barteri. The genetic diversity ranged between 40 to 99.9 %. The results were indicative that RAPD markers are useful in assessing genetic diversity of the Cucurbitaceae, providing an invaluable new tool for biological research and will be essential in expediting the process of breeding new and better adapted cucurbit species.