Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization and Control of Two Unknown Fungal Strains Isolated from Postharvest Mango Spoilage

Israt Jerin, Salek Ahmed Sajib, Md. Sifat Rahi, Md. Shihabul Islam, Waliullah ., Zannatul Chadni, K. M. K. B. Ferdaus, Kazi Md. Faisal Hoque, Md Abu Reza

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/41591

Ripened mangoes are perishable sometimes as they contain large amount of water and carbon sources which make it susceptible to spoilage by different fungi. This study was therefore carried out through morphological characteristics, growth characteristics and control measure of two unknown fungal strains isolated from postharvest spoiled ‘Gopalvog’ and ‘Mollica’ mango varieties. Both the colony color of fungal strain isolated from ‘Gopalvog’ and ‘Mollica’ was initially white. Surprisingly, the colony of fungal strain from ‘Gopalvog’ became grayish brown after 72 hours. The optimum mycelial growth of fungal strain isolated from ‘Gopalvog’ was obtained at pH 8, temperature 35°C and 2% glucose concentration. The optimum pH and temperature for growth of the fungal strain isolated from ‘Mollica’ were 6 and 35°C respectively. At 6% NaCl concentration, 100% inhibition of growth was obtained for both fungi. Growth of both the fungal strain was inhibited at 2% and 0.5-2% citric acid concentration respectively.


Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Airborne Bacteria in Healthcare Institutions in the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

N. N. Odu, H. O. Stanley, E. E. Ediae

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/41841

An assessment of airborne bacteria in the different healthcare institutions in the University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria was carried out in this study. Factors considered in this study were crowding, ventilation, degree of human activities around the hospitals, length of exposure of plates, time of sampling, type of health institution, space, sanitary systems and hygiene practice of hospital staff. An investigation of the air quality and quantity of airborne bacteria in the selected health institutions was carried out using the sedimentation method at the sites of study. The following eight bacterial species were isolated during the study:  Bacillus sp., Serratia sp., Streptococcus sp., Micrococcus sp., Proteus sp., Klebsiella sp., Citrobacter sp. and Staphylococcus sp. The occurrence of Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Proteus sp. and Serratia sp. were higher in Lulu Briggs Health Center, while the occurrence of Streptococcus sp., Micrococcus sp., Klebsiella sp. and Citrobacter sp. were higher in University of Port Harcourt (UPTH). The relatively higher occurrence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in UPTH may be attributed to the level of complication of the illnesses and medical cases attended to in the hospital compounded by factors such as poor ventilation, relatively high human population and poor anti-infection control practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reproductive Toxicity & Biomarker Response to a Daily Dose of Toothpaste in Male Albino Rats

Obemeata E. Oriakpono, Elfleda A. Aikins

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/40699

This study was carried out to evaluate the biomarker response of male albino wistar rats (Rattus novergicus) to a daily dose of toothpaste. Twenty four wistar rats were divided randomly into two groups and housed in wooden cages. The first group which is the test group was administered in varying doses (250 ul, 270 ul, 300 ul) according to their body weight (0.00167 mg/g body weight) per week for three weeks while on the fourth week no treatment was administered. This was done to observe the rate of recuperation from the effects of treatment. The second group which was the control group were given distilled water of equal measurement with the treatment given to the test rats. Selected biochemical and hematologic parameters were used to evaluate the effect of toothpaste. Parameters used for liver functions were; alkaline aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and protein, for kidney: sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl) and bicarbonate (HCO3), while for hematology: white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), platelets, lymphocytes, haemoglobin, packed cell volume (PCV). Sperm counts were also evaluated. The results showed significant differences (P< 0.05) in most parameters evaluated when compared with the control group. Our findings also demonstrates that toothpaste caused a detrimental effect on sperm count which could lead to infertility in males. There were also observed changes in liver, blood parameters and kidney which could lead to renal dysfunction when exposed to this substance for extended periods.


Open Access Original Research Article

Extraction, Partial Purification and Characterization of Peroxidase from Calotropis procera Leaves

Simon G. Mafulul, Enoch B. Joel, Larry A. Barde, Jessica L. Lenka, Ameh A. Ameh, Muplang G. Phililus

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/41709

Aim: This study was aimed at the isolation, partial purification and characterization of peroxidase from low cost material, Calotropis procera leaves.

Materials and Methods: Partial purification of crude enzyme extract was done by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by dialysis against Tris-HCl buffer. Peroxidase activity was measured spectrophotometrically.

Results: It was observed that after partial purification, the enzyme specific activity was increased as compared to crude enzyme extract. Peroxidase from Calotropis procera leaves was purified up to 2.04 fold with specific activity of 2.68 U/mg after dialysis. The partially purified peroxidase displayed optimum activity at temperature 50°C and pH 6.0. The kinetic data shows that guaiacol is a better substrate than ABTS. All the tested metal ions (Fe3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mg2+, Zn2+) and EDTA exhibited strong inhibitory effects on the Calotropis procera leaves peroxidase. 

Conclusion: It is more evident that Calotropis procera leaves are a good source of peroxidase. It is therefore, concluded that further purification and full biochemical characterization of this enzyme may serve as a promising option to be explored for industrial purposes.


Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Iron (III) Reducing Antioxidant Capacity for Manuka Honey and Comparison with ABTS and Other Methods

Hasif Ilyasa Mohd Yusof, Richard Owusu-Apenten, Poonam Singh Nigam

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/42202

Aims: Applying multiple assays with trolox as the sole reference compound is a recent AOAC proposal to improve the reliability of total antioxidant capacity determinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate, iron (III) reducing antioxidant capacity (iRAC) for Manuka honey samples and comparisons with ABTS and other well-known assays.

Study Design:  In-vitro, laboratory-based study.

Place and Duration of Study: School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Life and Health Sciences, Ulster University, Cromore Road, Coleraine, BT52 1SA, UK; September 2015-May 2016.

Methodology: Manuka honey rated Unique Manuka Factor (UMF) 5+, 10+, 15+, 18+ and a non-rated (NR) sample were analysed using five assays for total antioxidant capacity namely, iRAC, ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and Folin assays. Values for total antioxidant capacity were normalized as Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant capacity (TEAC) for comparison within and between assays.

Results: The TAC were correlated for all methods (R2 = 0.83-0.99) and also correlated with the total phenols content. Actual TEAC value for a given honey ranged by 21-70-fold depending on the assay method with the following general order of increase; DPPH < FRAP (pH 3.6) < iRAC (pH 7.0) < ABTS (pH7) < Folin (pH ~11). The trends in TAC values are discussed alongside of TEAC values for 50 food items and some challenges for comparing different antioxidant methods are highlighted.

Conclusion: Total antioxidant capacity of Manuka honey changes in a regular manner probably affected by assay pH. The findings are important for attempts to standardize antioxidant methods as currently applied to foods, beverages and dietary supplements.  Further research is recommended to examine the effect of normalizing antioxidant methods for solvent composition and pH.