Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Iron and Hydrogen Peroxide Supplementation on the Total Phenols Content and Cytoxicity of Honey for MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

Lai Yung Wong, Poonam Singh Nigam, Richard Owusu-Apenten

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/42344

Aims: To evaluate the effect of supplementation with iron (II/III) salts and/ or hydrogen peroxide on Manuka honey total phenols content (TPC) and the cytoxicity toward MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

Study Design:  The study had an In Vitro design.

Place and Duration of Study: Ulster University, School of Biomedical Sciences, between September 2017 and May 2018.

Methodology: Manuka honey rated Unique Manuka Factor (UMF) 18+ was supplemented with 0.45 mM or 4.5 mM of iron (II/III) salts and/ or 1.2 mM hydrogen peroxide. Changes of TPC were monitored by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Cytotoxicity was investigated using MCF-7 breast cancer cells and Sulforhodamine B (SRB) staining. 

Results: Addition of low amounts of iron to honey and ageing for 120 hours led to significant losses of TPC (20.49 ± 1.24%) whilst adding 4.5 mM iron(II) / hydrogen peroxide  produced a rise (218.9 ± 2.6%) of TPC consistent with phenol hydroxylation. Manuka honey toxicity towards MCF-7 cells was increased after supplemented with iron salts and ageing by 120 hours compared to freshly prepared Manuka honey / iron (III) sample. The changes are discussed in relation to a Fenton reaction model.

Conclusion: Manuka honey supplemented with iron and hydrogen peroxide showed decreases of TPC and increased cytotoxic effects towards MCF-7 breast cancer cells.


Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Fungicides for In vitro Control of Date Palm Black Scorch Disease Agent (Thielaviopsis paradoxa)

Awadalla I. A. Irabi, Mohamed Y. A. Abubaker, Siddig M. Elhassan

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/41987

Seven fungicides (Bayleton, Benlate, Tilt, Vitavax, Antracol, Copper-oxychloride and Soufrel)               were evaluated for the in vitro chemical control of Thielaviopsis paradoxa (de Seynes) Von Hӧhn. isolated from symptomatic date palm fronds showing typical symptoms of black scorch disease.     The pathogen growth was assessed by inoculating plates containing potato dextrose agar                (PDA)-fungicide mix at 10, 50 and 100 ppm a.i. of the respective fungicides with plugs from 4-day-old fungus culture. All tested fungicides caused significant reductions in the mycelial growth of               the pathogen with significant variations in their efficacies. The systemic fungicides were found to               be superior to the non-systemic ones and their inhibitive effective, with the exception of Bayleton, was profoundly stable. The ED50 values indicated that Benlate, Tilt and Vitavax ranked on the                 top (ED50 = 4 and 5 ppm), Bayleton and Antracol were intermediate (ED50 = 14 and 20                          ppm respectively) while Copper- oxychloride was the least efficacious fungicide in this respect   (ED50 = 100 ppm). However, the antifungal activity of all tested fungicides appeared to be   fungistatic since the treated fungus presumed growth in few to several days of incubation in clean PDA plates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicity of Single and Mixture Application of Afrostyrax lepidophyllus and Afromomum melegueta Seed Powder on the Biology of Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)

A. Onekutu, B. F. Ugwu, E. O. Otakpa

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/39666

The study investigated effect of Afrostyrax lepidophyllus (Af) and Afromomum melegueta (Am) seed powders and their mixtures on aspects of the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr biology. Twenty grams each of the cowpea seeds were placed in 5 transparent plastic containers labeled A-E, with E as the control. Ten (10) pairs of 1-2 days old adult C. maculatus were introduced into each set up and treated with four different ratios (Af:Am) of the powdered materials as follows; (60%:40%), (40%:60%) (100%:0%) and (0%:100%) and a control (0%:0%). Each treatment was replicated 4 times and arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The bruchids were allowed to feed, mate and oviposit for six days and monitored for Adult mortality. For ovipostion and adult emergence, 5 pairs of male and female bruchid introduced into containers with 10 seeds of cowpea. The treatments exhibited concentration and exposure time dependent toxicity. The 100%:0% application was the most toxic, causing 100% adult mortality within 4 days of post treatment with 1.5 g /20 g cowpea seeds. All other concentrations also caused significant (P<0.05) adult mortality 5 days post treatment. The treatment 60%:40% significantly deterred oviposition (P<0.05) and was the only treatment with noticeable oviposition deterency. The treatment 100%:0% recorded the lowest adult emergence (23.21%). The result indicates that sole application of                    A. lepidophyllus was more effective in protecting cowpea seeds against C. maculatus than the mixtures.


Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Production of Citric and Itaconic Acids from Cassava Peels by Aspergillus spp. and the Indigenous Microflora

A. T. Adeolu, S. O. Adewoye

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/41522

Plant biomass is a major renewable natural resource of the world and represents a major source of renewable organic matter. Cassava peels which constitute a nuisance to the community can be utilized by microorganisms to produce valuable products like organic acid yet they remain unexploited. This study compared the citric acid and itaconic acid production efficiency of Aspergillus spp. and the indigenous microflora in the cassava peels through solid state fermentation. Source-segregated cassava peels were collected from Garri processing factory in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, washed with distilled water, sun-dried, grounded and analysed for basic physico-chemical properties using standard procedures. The locally isolated fungal strains of A. niger and A. tereus were isolated from the topsoil using the pour plate method. Citric/Itaconic acid producing strain of A. niger and A. tereus were identified by the use of Czepak-Dox Agar. Aspergillus niger fermentation extract, Aspergillus tereus fermentation extract and crude fermentation extract  were obtained from 5 g of cassava peels after 13 day fermentation using acids-producing strain of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tereus, respectively and indigenous microflora in the cassava peels. Assay for citric/itaconic acid was carried out using standard methods and amount produced was derived by translation of absorbance values on the standard curve. The concentration of citric acid in the A. niger fermentation extract increased from 0.02 M on Day 1 to 0.05 M on Day 9 and then decreased to 0.04 M while that of A. tereus increased from 0.02 M on Day 1 to 0.04 M on Day 11 and then decreased along the fermentation days due to utilization of the substrate. In the crude fermentation extract, the concentration of acids increased from 0.02 M on Day 1 to 0.06 M on Day 11 and then decreased to 0.05 M. A. niger fermentation had a slightly higher acid production than A. tereus fermentation, however, both were lower than the crude fermentation. Cassava peel wastes could be used to produce resource materials (organic acid) that are of public health importance. Therefore, the cheaply available substrate for fermentation and the low cost of the fermentation process in obtaining the crude fermentation extract using the indigenous microflora potentially makes its use more economically acceptable.


Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Plasmodium falciparum K13 Propeller A569G Mutation after Artesunate-amodiaquine Treatment Failure in Niger

Ibrahim Maman Laminou, Moustapha Mahamane Lamine, Ibrahim Arzika, Boubacar Mahamadou, D. Gora, A. Dieye

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/42872

Background: Artemisinin (ART) resistance is a problem that may compromise the elimination of malaria. It is associated with point mutations in the kelch gene PF3D7_1343700 or K13 propeller (pfk13). A recent worldwide map of pfk13 polymorphisms revealed more than 100 non-synonymous (NS) mutations. However, it remains unclear whether these mutations are the result of drug pressure or the expression of a natural polymorphism, because of the scarcity of in-vivo selection of pfK13 mutations data in Africa.

Methodology: This survey evaluates the association between mutations in PfK13 and the response to treatment with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) at Gaya, Niger. Mutations in PfK13 before and after treatment were analyzed and used as evidence for the selection of drug resistance following drug pressure.

Results: A total of 161 DNA from patients included in a therapeutic efficacy survey comparing AL vs ASAQ at Gaya sentinel site in 2011 were amplified and sequenced. Five SNPs were identified including 3 non-synonymous (NS) mutations (R528K, A569G and V637I) and 2 synonymous (SY) mutations (C469C and Q613Q). Four SNPs were observed prior to artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) including 2 NS (R528K and V637I) and 2 SY (C469C and Q613Q) mutations. One NS mutation was selected by ASAQ (PfK13A569G) whereas AL treatment did not select any mutation.

Conclusion: This study suggests that the mutation pfk13A569G is selected by ASAQ. Further mutagenesis studies (CRISPR/Cas9 or Z-Finger Nuclease) will be needed to confirm if pfk13A569G confers resistance to artemisinin.