Open Access Short Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Zingiber officinale on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

Sani Njobdi, Maryam Gambo, Gali Adamu Ishaku

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/43534

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of extracts of fresh, dried and oil of Zinginber officinale on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the extracts against test organisms were determined and their inhibitory effects were compared with commercially available antibiotics.

Study Design: Laboratory based controlled experiment.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was conducted at the Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Modibbo Adamawa University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria between January and May, 2014.

Methodology: Extracts from fresh and dried rhizomes of Z. officinale as well as ginger oil, which was extracted with the aid soxhlet extraction apparatus using n-hexane as the solvent were tested on isolates of E. coli and S. aureus using the agar well diffusion method. Both bacterial isolates were also subjected to standard antibiotic susceptibility test for comparison. Broth dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations of the extracts on the test organisms.

Results: At concentrations of 10 mg/mL, 20 mg/mL, 30 mg/mL, and 40 mg/mL the zones of inhibition of dried Z. officinale extracts on S. aureus were 11.00 ±1.41 mm, 13.5 ± 0.71 mm, 14.00± 2.66 mm and 17.5 ± 0.87 mm respectively and on E. coli were 6.00 ± 2.83 mm, 7.5 ± 2.12 mm, 8.00 ± 2.83 mm and 14.5± 6.08 mm respectively. Fresh ginger showed 15.00±1.40 mm and 12.00±2.83 mm at 100%, 50% concentrations respectively on S. aureus and 15.00±3.54 mm and 13.00±2.66 mm on E. coli respectively but has no effect at 25% and 12.5% on both organisms. The oil extract showed zones of inhibition of 12.00±2.83 mm and 7.00±4.24 mm at 100% and 50% concentrations on S. aureus respectively, while it showed no activity on E. coli. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of dried and fresh Z. officinale extracts on both isolates at 2.5 mg/ml. Oil extract did not exhibit inhibitory effect in broth even at concentration of 10 mg/ml.

Conclusion: The study indicated that both fresh and dried Z. officinale extracts inhibit the growth of S. aureus and E. coli similar to some standard antibiotics. This suggests that the plant is a potential source of antibacterial drug.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Antibacterial Effect of Three Mouthwashes on Common Microbial Flora of the Oral Cavity

A. Z. Koggie, L. Y. Adogo, D. Ganranwei

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/43424

The study was based on determining the efficacy of three different mouthwashes, containing different classes of chemical agents. A random collection of 30 samples were obtained from Bingham University students in which three specific organisms were isolated. The isolated organisms studied were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. The mouthwashes used were assayed for their inhibitory effect on these isolates. The antibacterial activities of the mouthwashes were determined by using the antimicrobial susceptibility testing method. Data obtained from the study indicated that the three mouthwashes 001, 002, and 003 had inhibitory effects  on S. mutans (143.15 mm, 31.18 mm, 118.84 mm), S. aureus (113.11 mm, 3.14 mm, 50.27 mm) and C. albicans (56.75 mm, 15.91 mm, 9.62 mm). Different active components of these mouthwashes may account for their various areas of inhibition on these isolates as each active component has its own designated efficacy. The results revealed that mouthwash 001 and 003 had more active antimicrobial properties on the bacteria isolates whereas mouthwash 002 had little antimicrobial properties on the bacterial isolates but more on the fungal isolate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Bacillus subtilis Strains 3B and BC4333 Starter Cultures on the Quality of Fermented Parkia biglobosa Seeds, ''iru''

Aderibigbe, Esther Yetunde, Omodara, Tolani Rachael, Afolabi, Ibiwumi Ebenezer

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/33678

A comparative study was conducted to determine the effect of field application of the starter cultures Bacillus subtilis strains 3B and BC4333 on the quality of fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds. The proximate composition, microbial load, and other physicochemical properties of the fermented products were determined. The result showed that the microbial load of the commercial ‘iru’ sample was higher than that of ‘iru’ fermented using starter culture. The pH, moisture content, protein, ash, fat and crude fibre of the ‘iru’ fermented using starter culture was significantly higher than the commercially produced ‘iru’ and the unfermented substrate. However, carbohydrate and total titratable acidity (TTA) in the commercial ‘iru’ sample was lower than those of the starter culture- fermented samples. This research proves that the starter culture helps to produce ‘iru’ of better quality. Hence, these strains (3B and BC4333) can be made available to local women for commercial production of ‘iru’.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Inoculation by Azospirillum Affects Protein and Carbohydrate of Maize Grain under Nitrogen Deficiency

Mohamed Mohamed Mohamed Atta, Hashim Mohamed Abdel-Lattif, Mohamed Hamza

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/43784

The use of nitrogen-fixing bacteria as an alternate N resource would play an important role in environmental protection by providing an eco-friendly and cost-effective inputs for farmers. The present investigation was carried out in the experimental field of Agric. Res. Stat. of Fac. of Agric., Cairo Univ., Giza, Egypt in 2014 and 2015 seasons. The primary objective of this investigation was to study the effect of Azospirillum bacteria on maize yield as well as grain protein and carbohydrate. Six maize cultivars were evaluated under three N treatments namely, high-N (286 kg N /ha), Low-N (without applying N) and BNF (bacterial nitrogen fixation, 24 kg/ha of bacterial inoculum) using a split-plot design with three replications. The investigation indicated that BNF treatment significantly surpassed Low-N treatment by 7.11% for grain yield/ha and 19.56% for protein yield/ha. The most interesting observation in the study was the superiority of BNF treatment for grain protein percentage by 4.0% and 16.91% over High-N and Low-N treatments, respectively. The present investigation concluded that maize yield as well as grain quality could be improved under low soil-N conditions by using Azospirillum bacteria not only for N fixation but also by excretion of phytohormones such as auxins and cytokinins and proved that Azospirillum bacteria could be used as an alternate N resource to maintain a clean environment as well as maintain soil fertility and sustainability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphometric Characterisation of Freshwater Clam (Egeria radiata) in Three Geographic Locations of South-South Nigeria

E. V. Ikpeme, U. U. Johnny

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/43313

Egeria radiata is a freshwater clam endemic in some large water bodies in West Africa where it serves the native communities as source of protein, income, etc. Studies on characterisation of exploited species can provide information helpful in predicting their availability, especially in the future. This research engaged nine morphometric traits of the species collected from three different geographic locations in south-south Nigeria – Itu, Southern Ijaw, and Burutu. Statistics used in the analyses were ANOVA, PCA, Coordinate plots of PCs and Hierarchical cluster analysis. Five traits were identified as primary sources of variations. Southern Ijaw samples were peculiar while Itu and Burutu samples were statistically similar. Although environmental influence seems to interact with physiological processes to effect the changes in shell parameters, they are not reliable in this case because the populations were not properly distinguished based on the nine shell-expressed traits engaged in the study. Involvement of molecular technique will, however, give clearer information on the characterisation of the species in the populations of study.