Open Access Original Research Article

Whole Plants Regeneration of Cassava Cultivars (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Originated from Côte d'Ivoire via Somatic Embryogenesis

Kouassi Konan Marius, Kouassi Kan Modeste, Koffi Kouablan Edmond, Gnamien Yah Gwladys, Kouakou Kouakou Laurent, Koné Mongomaké

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/44027

Aims: To study the capacity of cassava genotypes in Côte d'Ivoire to induce somatic embryos and to regenerate plants from immature leaves

Study Design: In-vitro, laboratory-based study.

Place and Duration of Study: National Center for Agronomic Research (CNRA), between January 2017 and April 2018.

Methodology: An efficient protocol to regenerate somatic embryogenesis (SE) from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) plants cultivated in Côte d'Ivoire was achieved. Immature leaf lobes were used as explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with different concentrations (16; 33; 50; 66 and 83 μM) of the auxins Picloram (Pic) and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D).

Results: The results showed that the frequency of primary somatic embryogenesis (PSE) and the mean number of somatic embryos varied significantly with the genotype, the type of auxin and the tested concentrations. The highest frequencies and numbers of somatic embryos per explant were observed with cv. TMS 60444 (81.66%; 190.8) on 50 μM Pic, followed by Local XX1 (90%; 180) on 66 μM Pic, To (100%; 145.8) on 50 μM Pic, I (80%; 125.6) on 66 μM 2,4D and M (100%; 112) on 50 μM 2,4D. Shoot bud induction from green cotyledons varied across cultivars and benzylaminopurine combined with 1-Naphthalene acetic acid outperformed benzylaminopurine associated with Indole-3-butyric acid regarding induce of organogenesis.

Conclusion: Regenerated plants grew easily in the greenhouse with 90 – 100% survival rate and did not display detectable variation in morphology.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical and Molecular Evaluation of the Plant Ecballium elaterium Extract Effects on Escherichia coli

Awni Abu-Hijleh, Ghaleb Adwan, Wafa Abdat

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/43882

Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the genotoxic effects of fruit and leaf ethanolic extracts of Ecaballium elateruim on clinical and reference strains of E. coli (E. coli ATCC 25922).

Methodology: The genotoxic effects of fruit and leaf ethanolic extracts were determined by using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC-PCR) and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE).

Results: The results showed an alteration in DNA and protein profiles of both tested Escherichia coli strains treated with fruit and leaf extracts compared with untreated control. The alterations ranged between decreased or increased intensity of some bands, absence or appearance of new amplified fragments. Moreover, increased concentrations of E. elaterium extracts and increased time intervals seems to yield a more profound increase in total protein concentrations in both tested E. coli strains.

Conclusions: Such findings strongly indicate the genotoxic effects of E. elaterium extracts on both E. coli strains. The results draw attention to the unsafe, improper use of E. elaterium extracts in folkloric medicine and point out the capability of using E. elaterium to treat E. coli infections. Future studies should be needed to find out the exact mechanisms responsible for the observed genotoxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Polymorphism of α-Lactalbumin and Lactoferrin and Their Relationship with Milkfat in West African Dwarf Goat

Mabel Omolara Akinyemi, Osamede Henry Osaiyuwu, Olusola Olukunmi Ogunsola

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/34580

Milk samples of 39 lactating West African Dwarf does in selected households in Akinyele Local Government Area of Oyo State were analyzed to study the genetic polymorphism of α-lactalbumin and lactoferrin and their effect on milk fat content. Genetic variants of milk protein were detected by cellulose acetate electrophoresis; milk samples were processed to remove fat prior to analysis. The interpretation of electrophoretic migrations revealed the presence of two alleles in each locus studied. The two alleles A and B controlled three genotypes: AA, AB and BB. Homozygous genotypes AA and BB at the α-Lactalbumin locus was observed in 17 and 5 individuals representing 42.5% and 12.5% respectively and 11 and 6 individuals representing 27.5% and 15% at the lactoferrin locus. No significant effect on milk fat content was observed for the two loci studied.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Dental Pulp Stem Cell (DPSC) Biomarkers Following Induction with Bone Morphogenic Protein 2 (BMP-2)

Joseph Cinelli, Erica Nguyen, Karl Kingsley

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/44215

Introduction: Tissue regeneration and biomedical engineering are the goals of modern research that have made tremendous strides in recent years. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have been demonstrated to exhibit functional multipotency, differentiating into neurons, adipocytes, and other cell types. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the ability of bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2) to induce proliferation and differentiation of DPSC isolates into mineral forming bone cell precursor lineages.

Study Design: This was a prospective study with the non-randomised experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas – School of Dental Medicine between May 2017 and August 2018.

Methodology: Eight previously isolated dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) isolates were grown in culture and treated with bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2) to evaluate any effects on growth, viability or biomarker expression.

Results: BMP-2 induced significant changes in cellular growth among a subset of DPSC with slow doubling times (sDT), which corresponded with similar increases in cellular viability.  Also, BMP-2 was sufficient to induce mRNA expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and other differentiation markers among the sDT isolates – although no significant changes were observed among the DPSC isolates with rapid or intermediate DTs (rDT, iDT). 

Conclusions: This study may be the first to demonstrate not only the differential responsiveness of DPSC isolates to BMP-2, but also to identify the MSC biomarkers that may affect initial DPSC responsiveness to this stimulus. Although many studies have evaluated the role of the biomarkers NANOG, Sox-2 and Oct-4 in DPSC isolate, no other study of DPSC multipotency has evaluated the role of Nestin – which may be one of the key factors that potentiate or limits the responsiveness to BMP-2 and osteogenic potential among DPSCs. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnobotanical Inventory of Oguru-ama Town, Degema Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria

Mercy Gospel Ajuru

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/13576

The main objective of this study was to show the different ways medicinal plants are used by the indigenous people of Oguru-ama town in Degema Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Another objective was to document the medicinal plants used in this area and enumerate the need for conservation of these important plants.

One hundred structured questionnaires were administered, including oral interviews to herbal practitioners and users located at different parts of the community.

The results showed that a total of 41 plant species distributed into 38 genera and 28 families were recorded and classified according to their botanical, common, local, and family names. Also, plant parts used, mode of preparation, administration, and ailment cured were included.

The family with the highest number of species was the Poaceae, followed by the Rutaceae and Fabaceae families. The plant parts mostly used were leaves, followed by bark, fruit, seed, and root. The ethnobotanical uses of the plants include treatment of malaria, typhoid, cough, eczema, dysentery, catarrh, boil, wound, convulsion, etc.

Ethnobotanical knowledge is in the custody of traditional healers or native doctors and most of them die with this knowledge without passing it down. Also, herbs are not only useful in medicine but also in construction, arts and crafts work, cultivated as food crops, but their existence are being threatened due to deforestation, agricultural practices, and fire outbreak. Special attention should be given to the medicinal plants in this area through conservation because of their significant role in healthcare system, and environmental protection.