Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Cashew Pulp and Shell, Kola, Cocoa and Coffee Husk as Substrates for the Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus

S. T. Lowor, Eben Ofori

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/24346

Aims: Coffee, cocoa, kola and cashew shells and cashew pulp, all agricultural waste were evaluated as potential raw materials for cultivating Pleurotus ostreatus and to determine the influence of substrate on mushroom nutritional quality.

Methodology: Composted substrates were bagged, inoculated with spawn and cropped. Treatments were arranged in a Completely Randomised Design in the cropping house. Substrate colonization, yield and nutritional quality of mushroom carried out using various biochemical tests.

Results: Mushroom grown on cashew pulp had significantly lower levels of total polyphenols than the other five substrates suggesting that bioaccumulation of phenolics by the fungus was not dependent on the levels originally present in the substrate. Carbohydrates, one of the major constituents of mushroom, ranged from 11% in cocoa to 20.6% in cashew pulp. In terms of soluble sugars, cashew pulp mushroom had significantly (P < .05) higher levels of soluble sugars than the others. Heavy metal levels were all low and within the recommended for food products. Low crude fat content characterized the samples, significantly influenced by substrate and ranged from 0.95% (Kola husk) to 2.83% (cocoa pod husk) in dry mushrooms. Significant differences observed in the dry matter content of the mushroom grown on the six substrates, with values ranging from 8.01 to 13.96%. Mushroom from cashew shell and coffee husk had the lowest dry matter among the treatments.

Conclusion: Kola husk, cocoa pod husk, cashew pulp and cashew shell as available agricultural wastes produced in the country have high potential for utilization as substrates for the cultivation of P. ostreatus mushroom with good nutritional value. Some nutrient compositions were however influenced by the substrate used. All substrates supported P. ostreatus growth fruiting, however coffee husk did produce lower yields in terms of biological efficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antibacterial and Phytochemical Analysis of Root Bark Extracts of Guiera senegalensis against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

M. Garba, A. I. Minjibir, N. I. Tijjani, J. H. Suleiman, M. Ali

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/31155

Aim: The study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity and phytochemical screening of Guiera senegalensis extracts against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

Place and Duration of Study: A total of 70 samples of wound, High Vaginal Swab (HVS) and Skin   were collected from Muhammad Abdullahi Wase specialist Hospital, Kano from September 2015 to December 2015.

Methodology: The aqueous and ethanol  extracts from Guiera senegalensis root bark was tested using well diffusion method for their antibacterial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from wound, skin and HVS  samples of patients attending Muhammad Abdullah Wase specialist Hospital, Kano.

Results: The results showed that the ethanolic extracts of the root bark produces impressive antibacterial activity against some of the test organisms with zone of inhibition ranging between 24mm and 20mm, the aqueous root extracts had low inhibitory effect than the ethanolic extract with zone of inhibition of 21mm and 15mm. This is therefore indicates that the root bark extracts partitioned in solvent of different polarities were effective against some MRSA. Phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of phyto-compounds such as alkaloids and tannins which are known to inhibit bacterial growth by different mechanisms from those of synthetic drugs.

Conclusion: The phyto-constituents present may be responsible for the Guiera senegalensis antibacterial activity hence, Guiera senegalensis can be used as antibacterial agent against Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Relation between Biochemical Parameters and Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease

Farzane Shakeri, Hamideh Ghodrati Azadi, Seyed Mohammad Reza Parizadeh, Daryoush Hamidi Alamdari

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/11680

Aims: Rheumatoid arthritis is a self-immunity, progressive, and chronic disease the cause of which is still not clear. This disorder is mainly characterized with non-exclusive inflammation of local joints or joints inflammation, morning stiffness, destruction of articular tissues, and transformation of joints. Studies have shown that development of rheumatoid arthritis is related to increased production of oxygen reactant species and decreased the ability to suppress oxidative stress. In rheumatoid arthritis patients, increased free radicals of oxygen (ROS) act as mediators of tissue damage. This point emphasizes on the necessity of applying appropriate methods for examining tissue oxidative condition and antioxidant compounds capabilities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Methodology: We considered its relation with biochemical parameters. In surveying 130 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, the index rate of oxidant was compared in test group and control group using independent T Test by prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB).

Conclusion: Due to the fact that P Value <0. 001, we observed a meaningful difference with rheumatoid arthritis. In examining biochemical parameters in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, urea and has decreased while uric acid content has increased.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diurnal Variation of Serum Iron Level among Apparently Healthy Sudanese Adults

Ebtihal Ahmed Babekir, Ibrahim Khider Ibrahim, Tagwa Yousif El Sayed

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-3
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/28141

Background: Assessment of iron status in clinical studies is often based on a single blood sample, Thus if diurnal variations in serum iron levels is large (morning samples were assumed to be higher than afternoon or evening levels).This may lead to the individual iron status may be misinterpreted especially in case of regular follow up of patients under iron therapy.

Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to study the diurnal variation in serum iron levels among apparently healthy adult Sudanese volunteers.

Materials and Methods: A total of 70 apparently healthy individuals were recruited to participate in this study during the period from March to May 2013 in Khartoum state, their age ranged from 17 to 35 years, out of them, 31 (44.5%) were males and rest 39 (55.5%) females. Three ml of veinous blood sample was collected from each participant into lithium heparin anticoagulant containers two times at 8:00 AM and at 5:00PM. The serum iron level was determined using COBAS INTEGRA system (chemistry analyzer).

Results: The result showed that there was no significant difference in mean serum iron level between morning and evening samples in males (p value >0.05) whereas it was significant  in females (p<0.05).

Conclusion: There was an obvious difference between morning and evening concentration of serum iron and there was significantly different in means according to gender.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biosynthesis of Enzymes in Fermented Foods by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Possible Use as Bio-Preservative in Fermented Milk

S. M. Adeyemo, K. O. Awojobi, E. D. Ogunlusi, O. E. Odediran

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/42971

This work focused on isolating Lactic Acid Bacteria from fermented local milk, assaying the enzymes produced by the organisms, using them as starters in the fermentation of fresh milk and monitoring their bio-preservative activities.

Fresh milk samples pasteurized at 85°C for 15 min were inoculated with lactic cultures (3x106 cful/ml). Two organisms with high enzymatic activities were used as starters singly and in combination. LAB, yeast, coliform and aerobic count were monitored during fermentation at room temperature for five days.

Twenty four LAB were isolated from replicate samples of locally fermented milk called Nunu. They were identified as L. plantarum, L. fermentum, L. lactis, L.bulgaricus, L. casei and L. brevis. The organisms were screened for the production of antimicrobials; hydrogen peroxide, diacetyl, lactic acid and Agar well diffusion method was used to monitor the antagonistic activities. These were used to screen the organisms and those with the best technological properties were selected as starters. Enzyme production and activities were monitored using Dinitrosalysilic acid method. Enzymes production; amylase, alpha-galactosidase, invertase and mellibiase ranged from 1.0-2.6 unit/ml from day 0-5 after which there was a significant reduction (0.5 unit/ml). Two organisms with high enzymatic activities; Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. plantarum were used as starters singly and in combination to inoculate the fresh milk samples which have been pasteurized earlier. The total LAB, yeast, coliform and aerobic count were monitored during fermentation at room temperature for five days. LAB count increased significantly from day 0-5 (5.1x108cfu/ml). A gradual increase was observed in yeast and aerobic count (3.6x103-6.1x104cfu/ml).

LAB demonstrated high enzymatic and bio-preservative activities on fresh milk by preserving the nutritional qualities of the milk and extending the shelf life of fresh milk. It also acts as natural preservative in milk by inhibiting spoilage microorganisms.