Open Access Minireview Article

An Overview on the Processes Involved in the Production of Triploid Fish for Aquaculture

Iyiola, Adams Ovie, Umma, Samuel Bem

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/14325

Production of Triploid fish for aquaculture involves the manipulation of chromosome number of cultured fish to produce offspring with three sets of chromosomes. They have a large cell size and nucleus which contains 33% more alleles for growth thereby exhibiting fast growth which is a good culture characteristic. Triploid fish can be produced by applying shock either through temperature (cold shock- 2oC to 6oC and heat shock- 38 to 40oC), pressure (7000 – 10000psi) or the use of chemicals (Cytochalasin B, Nitrous oxide) to fertilized eggs. The use of temperature shock is less expensive with pressure and heat shock giving the best results. The success of shock induction depends on the time and duration of shock, the temperature and pressure used. Sterility in triploids occurs as a result of genetic incompatibility of chromosome sets during meiosis to form two equal haploid sets thereby producing abnormal gametes and the sterility leads to increased growth. Triploids exhibit good carcass quality and can help to increase fish production and reduced the risk of genetic pollution of wild stocks when they are accidentally or intentionally released into aquatic ecosystems. The production of triploids for aquaculture can therefore be encouraged for increased production and the ethical aspects should be addressesed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiochemical Properties and Identification of Elite Genotypes for Improved Sorghum Breeding in Tanzania

Emmanuel T. Mwenda, Justin H. Ringo, Ernest R. Mbega

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2018/v20i130067

Variability in physiochemical properties in sorghum is critical in cultivar development for optimum grain quality and crop resistance against fungal and insect pests. These traits are not well studied. The objective of this study was to characterize sorghum genotypes based on kernel phenotypic and biochemical traits and identify promising genotypes for better utilization of these traits in sorghum breeding. 98 sorghum genotypes comprised by the released varieties, breeding lines, hybrids and local cultivars were studied using qualitative and quantitative parameters. 75.51% of these genotypes have thick pericarp, 33.67% have testa layer, and 7.0% showed mostly-corneous endosperm texture. Results revealed a wide variability among studied genotypes in terms of phenotypic and biochemical properties (p<0.001). A cross IES11038 X A1GD 34553 recorded the highest 100 seed weight (6.2g). Pato and IESV 92174DL were the hardest genotypes with 110.33 and 108.4N respectively. Protein content ranged from 6.52 to 12.23%, of which Naco Mtama 1 and IESV 24030SH were the promising genotypes. Genotypes ICSA 88006 x IESV92172DL, ICSA15 x R8602 and GADAM recorded the highest starch concentration (79 g/100g). The identified elite genotypes could enable selection and hybridization of useful traits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Multiple Degradation and Resistance Capabilities of Marine Bacteria Isolated from Niger Delta, Nigeria on Petroleum Pollutants and Heavy Metals

Bright Obidinma Uba, Edna Ifeoma Chukwura, Ebere Linda Okoye, Onyedikachi Ubani, Mark Iyere Irabor, Nwanneka Vivian Onyekwuluje, Joseph Ebuka Ajeh, Calista Sochima Mmuogbo, Maryann Chizoba Nwafor, Chibundom Christiana Igboesorom, Chidera Juliet Nwodo, Jennifer Chinenye Okafor, Chinenyenwa Jennifer Nwachukwu

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2018/v20i130068

Aims: To determine multiple degradation and resistance capabilities of marine bacteria isolated from Rivers State, Nigeria on petroleum pollutants and heavy metals.

Study Design: Nine treatments and the controls designs were set up in triplicates containing              100 mL of sterile modified mineral basal medium in 250 mL conical flasks supplemented with 50, 100, 200 and 300 ppm of xylene, anthracene and pyrene each; 1 % of other petroleum pollutants and 300 ppm of heavy metals, nine marine hydrocarbon degraders and incubated at 24ºC for 5 - 7 days. The nine treatments and controls set ups designated as ANT1, XYL2, PYR3, ANT4, PYR5, ANT6, XYL7, XYL8, PYR9 and CTRL (Without hydrocarbons) were used to determine the multiple degradability of the marine bacteria.  

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Uli Nigeria between September, 2014 and March, 2017.

Methodology: A laboratory scale study was carried on six composite samples of the sediment and water samples from the three studied areas using enrichment, screening, selection, molecular, growth effect and substrate specificity techniques.

Results: The findings revealed that screening and selection for the indigenous bacterial isolates from the three studied areas resulted in the isolation of nine out of forty eight (9/48) of the potent strains representing 18.75 % of the total isolates with significant (P = .05) multiple degradation and resistance potentials but with different efficiencies on xylene, anthracene and pyrene, other petroleum products and heavy metals at 50 – 300 pm and 1 %. All the nine potent strains were fully characterized molecularly and phylogenetically and belong to the genera: Providencia, Alcaligenes, Brevundimonas, Myroides, Serratia, and Bacillus.

Conclusion: Thus, these selected potent bacterial strains could significantly contribute in the development of a cost - effective bioremediation process on aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals contaminated environments in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Moisture Absorption Behaviour, Extract Yields and Sensory Evaluation of Soaked Cyperus esculentus

Olayinka O. Elutade, Olubukola M. Oyawoye, Ediga B. Agbo

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2018/v20i130069

This work investigated the comparison in the moisture absorption behavior, the extract yields and sensory evaluation of brown and yellow varieties of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) tubers when soaked in water for tiger nut beverage production. For each tuber variety, 3 g of it was steeped in 30 ml of distilled water for 5 days and periodically re-weighed at 24-hour intervals until the tubers had attained saturated moisture content. Furthermore, 200 g of each variety was steeped in 800 ml of sterile distilled water for periods of 0 hour (control), 24 hours, 48 hours and 96 hours, respectively. At the end of each time interval, the tubers were removed, ground in 800 ml sterile distilled water, sieved, and the beverage liquid filtrate obtained measured as the percentage extract yield for the tuber sample. Aroma, colour, taste and acceptance were the parameters used for sensory evaluation. The brown tubers showed a significantly (P≤0.05) higher moisture absorption behavior than the yellow tubers; the brown and yellow had the highest rate of moisture absorption ability of 52.22% and 35.56%, respectively, occurring after soaking for 24 hours. At same 24 hours of the soaking period, the resultant extracts obtained from the brown and yellow tubers were at a significant peak yields of 92% and 89.5%, respectively. Extracts from the brown tubers were preferred in taste and colour to those from the yellow variety. Water absorption potentials of tiger nut tubers during soaking process, has potential effects on the beverage extraction and quality.

Open Access Review Article

The Resolution of Thyroid Storm Using Plasma Exchange and Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy

Parker A. Haley, Iza David Zabaneh, Daniel N. Bandak, M. D. Srinivasa Iskapalli

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2018/45719

Severe Thyrotoxicosis is a serious medical emergency that can be associated with multisystem organ failure, high mortality, and morbidity. Early diagnosis and management is important to avoid detrimental outcomes. We herein report a case of 24-year-old man with thyroid storm and multisystem organ failure who was treated successfully with a combination of plasma exchange and Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT).