Open Access Short Research Article

External Quality Assessment: Microscopy Diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum for a Better Management of Malaria in the Regional Health Center in Côte d’Ivoire

Beourou Sylvain, Tuo Karim, A. Toure Offianan, F. A. N’dhouba Claude, N’goran Hubert, Bassinka Issiaka, Penali Louis, Dosso Mireille, J. Djaman Allico

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2018/v20i230070

Context: In Côte d'Ivoire, malaria is transmitted throughout the year with an increased rate during the rainy season. This pathology is endemic on the whole territory with seasonal variations. The major vector is Anopheles gambiae. The external microbiology quality assessment programs organized by both Institut Pasteur of Côte d'Ivoire (IPCI) and PEPFAR, malaria microscopy was randomly carried out in 1/3 of the country regional health center laboratories.  Laboratory technicians play a key role in malaria control programs because care services such as the disease monitoring depend on their diagnosis and technical skills.

Aim: The aim of this evaluation was to control the quality of the microscopic diagnosis and the performance of on-duty technicians for the management of feverish patients and efforts to strengthen laboratory services.

Méthodology: Six (6) RHC (Regional Health Center) laboratories were involved in the evaluation. Anonymity code was assigned to each of the participating laboratories.

There were many discrepancies in External Quality Assessment (EQA) results on the field not with standing the parasitemia, low or high.

Results: Only 30% of correct answers were recorded for P. falciparum identification. For P. ovale, we found a failure rate of 100% for laboratories.

Conclusion: Parasitemia was approximate and many confusions were observed regarding the different stages of parasites.

Open Access Short Research Article

Isolation and Identification of Bacteria Associated with Suya (Roasted Meat Product) Sold in Dutsinma Local Government Area, Kastina State

J. B. Orpin, I. Mzungu, C. G. Osuji

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2018/v20i230071

A study was carried out to isolate and identify Bacteria associated with suya (roasted meat product) sold in Dutsinma metropolis. Bacteriological analysis was carried out on the thirty (30) unspiced and thirty (30) spiced the samples collected from five (5) different retail outlets for identification and isolation using microscopy and biochemical test. The Prevalence of occurrence of the bacteria isolates was highest for Escherichia coli with 25.9%, Staphylococcus epidermidis with 24.5%, Bacillus cereus with 21.0%, Klebsiella pneumoniae with 11.8%, Staphylococcus aureus with 8.4% Streptococcus faecalis with 6.3%, and Salmonella sp with 2.1%. The mean aerobic plate count were in order of 106 (cfu/g) with the highest value for unspiced suya samples at 2.65 and that of spiced suya samples was 2.95. Occurrence of such organisms in ready-to –eat food constitutes a food safety issue which calls for urgent response in the education of suya producers on the hazards, Critical Control Points and the importance of personal hygiene and clean environment. Critical limits for the critical control points identified in this study are proposed. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Geohelminth Parasites of Horses in Dutsinma Metropolis, Katsina State Nigeria

J. B. Orpin, I. Mzungu, M. S. Hussaini

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2018/v20i230072

This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of geohelminth parasites of horses in Dutsinma metropolis between May to August, 2016. Fresh fecal sample were obtained from the rectum of 48 randomly selected horses. A floatation technique was used for the lab work experiment. From the result, out of the total sample collected 6 (12.50%) were positive with eggs of two parasites Strongyles and Oxyuris spp with the prevalence of (6.25%) for each. Among the three points of sample collection, the highest prevalence was recorded at Kadangaru (20.00%) followed by Unguwa Yandaka (18.18%) and no case recorded at Hayingada. X2 cal = 36.84 at P=0.05 and 2df. The highest prevalence was recorded among the males (18.52%) while only 1 female was affected with the prevalence of (4.76%) X2 cal = 36.57 at P=0.05 and 2df. Prevalence was recorded in adult of 14.29% while young horses recorded a prevalence of 10.00%, X2 cal = 36.84 at P=0.05 Strongyles and Oxyuris spp were recognized as important geohelminth parasites in Horses in Dutsinma Local Goverment Area of Katsina State with various rates of infection (12.50%). Managerial control tools should be integrated to improve prevention of geohelminth parasites by communication, information and health education.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microalgae as a Source of Functional PUFAs: A Green Low-cost Pathway via Enzymatic Hydrolysis

Eduardo Henrique Bredda, Messias Borges Silva, Heizir Ferreira de Castro, Ana Paula Teixeira da Silva, Patrícia Caroline Molgero da Rós

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2018/v20i230073

Microalgal oil is an alternative source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that can replace conventional ones such as vegetable and fish oils. In this work, Nannochloropsis gaditana oil was investigated as a source of high-value polyunsaturated fatty acids.

The cultivation conditions were optimized using a 22 full factorial design to simultaneously assess the influence of NaNO3 (0.075 to 0.225 mg.L-1) and CH3COONa (2 to 6 g.L-1) concentrations on the lipid productivity. All cultivations were done in 4 L tank photo bioreactors for 7 days, yielding 21.87 mg.L-1.day-1 maximum lipid productivity when using 225 mg.L-1 of nitrate and 6 g.L-1 of acetate. The obtained microbial oil was further characterized revealing palmitic (22.1%), oleic (22.3%), and linoleic (17.0%) as the main fatty acids. The resulting microbial oil was employed in the hydrolysis reactions and different sources of lipases as biocatalysts. The highest performance was achieved by the lipases Burkholderia cepacia (86%), Candida rugosa (84%), and Rhizopus oryzae (82%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Improving Agricultural Productivity and Energy Sufficiency on Marginal Lands: The Agricultural Waste Recycling Approach in the Ndop Ecofarm, North West Region, Cameroon

Jicenta N. Foncha, Godswill Azinwie Asongwe

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2018/v20i230074

The Green Revolution, which promotes the extensive use of chemicals for improved productivity has witnessed enormous setbacks. Numerous small poorly equipped and very low-income farmers are unable to gain access to the new production means. As their income opportunities shrink, farmers are left with no options but to tend towards unsustainable activities that depletes the environment more; consequently precipitating the vicious cycle of poverty and environmental degradation characterized by, rising food prices, food security and energy crises. This study used the modified institutional analysis and development framework on the waste recycling approach to review the model for achieving agricultural productivity and energy sufficiency on marginal lands in the Ndop plain North West Region of Cameroon. It specifically analyzed the food and energy benefits alongside potential uptake by small-scale farmers. The results indicated that agricultural waste recycling provided improved market access; generate employment; increase income – increase purchasing power; improve household nutritional security and close the poverty gap (inequalities) amongst the rural poor in the community. Student t-test revealed a significant difference (t=-3.08, P=0.006) of farmers’ livelihood before and after commencing agricultural recycling. Engaging in agricultural waste has enabled 8.5% of farmers to improve their livelihood and enhanced energy efficiency.