Open Access Original Research Article

Nannochloropsis gaditana and Dunaliella salina as Feedstock for Biodiesel Production: Lipid Production and Biofuel Quality

Eduardo Henrique Bredda, Patrícia Caroline Molgero Da Rós, Guilherme Arantes Pedro, Heizir Ferreira de Castro, Messias Borges Silva

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2018/v20i330075

Introduction: Microalgal lipids have a wide range of applications, from biodiesel manufacture in the energy industry to the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids for the pharmaceutical industry. Microalgal lipid productivity and quality, however, vary greatly depending on cultivation parameters.

Aims: In this study, we investigated the potential of two marine microalgae, Nannochloropsis gaditana and Dunaliella salina, to be used as feedstock for biodiesel production.

Methodology: A Taguchi L4 orthogonal array design was applied to understand the effects of sodium acetate (0 or 2 g L−1), sodium bicarbonate (0 or 2 g L−1), and sodium nitrate (25 or 75 mg L−1) concentrations on biomass and lipid productivities. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles of microalgal lipids obtained under the best conditions were determined, and FAME results were used to predict biodiesel properties.

Results: Both carbon sources (sodium acetate and sodium bicarbonate) improved biomass productivity. Lipid productivity was enhanced only by sodium acetate. The highest lipid productivities obtained were 10.25 ± 1.02 and 12.12 ± 0.28 mg L−1 day−1 for N. gaditana and D. salina, respectively. Palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:1), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), lauric (C12:0), and myristic (C14:0) acids were the major components of D. salina oil. The major fatty acids in N. gaditana oil were C16:0, C18:0, and C18:1.

Conclusion: The great differences in FAME profiles resulted in different biodiesel properties. Biodiesel from N. gaditana oil was predicted to have a higher cetane number (73.20) than that derived from D. salina oil (59.59). D. salina oil biodiesel, however, was predicted to have better properties than N. gaditana oil biodiesel, including lower cloud point (0.46°C) and cold filter plugging point (−7.27°C).

Open Access Original Research Article

Prophylactic Effects of Some Nigerian Higher Fungi on Malaria Parasite, Plasmodium berghei berghei in BALB/c Strain Albino Mice

Olayinka Oluyemi Oluranti, Segun Gbolagade Jonathan, Odunayo Joseph Olawuyi

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2018/v20i330076

The preventive abilities of some Nigerian higher fungi; Pleurotus pulmonarius, Fomes lignosus, Lentinus subnudus, Termitomyces robustus, Pleurotus tuber-regium collected from wood substrates, and the combined extracts (40 mg/mL) were studied against malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei berghei to exploit them as medicinal agents. The fruit bodies were extracted with ethanol using soxhlet apparatus. Six hundred and twelve 4- 5 weeks old BALB/c mice (average weight 21 g) were assigned into 30 groups of twelve mice each. They were orally treated with 0.1 mL extracts of 4, 0.4, 0.04, 0.004, 0.0004 mg/mL before infecting with 0.2 mL of 5x106 parasitized erythrocytes. Chloroquine,CQ (20 mg/kg) served as controls. Liver and kidney were examined for histological changes. Parasitemic level, packed cell volume (PCV) and weights of animals were checked using standard methods. Descriptive statistics and ANOVA (at p= 0.05) were used for data analysis. Lentinus subnudus produced the highest decrease of parasitemia (30%), and recorded the least loss of PCV (27%), while Pleurotus tuber-regium produced the least weight loss of 26.5%. All the mushroom extracts produced same effect as CQ at concentrations 0.4 and 0.04 mg/mL. The tissues of infected animals without extracts had abnormalities. There were no histological damage in tissues of uninfected animals. Pre-infection treatment produced mild abnormal conditions from severe periportal infiltration and marked sinusoidal congestion. The extracts could be formulated into drugs against malaria however, appropriate dosage must be known.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impacts of Artisanal Crude Oil Refining Activities on Soil Microorganisms

Douglas, Salome Ibietela, Cornelius, Blessing Tamunonegiyeofori

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2018/v20i330077

Aim: To evaluate the effect of illegal crude oil refining activities on soil microorganisms using standard microbiological methods.

Study Design: This study employs laboratory experimental design, statistical analysis of the data and interpretation.

Place and Duration of Study:  Soil samples were taken once a month for three months (May- July, 2018) from Ke in Degema Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria, where illegal crude oil refining activities are ongoing.

Methodology: Using standard microbiological methods, total culturable heterotrophic bacterial counts, total fungal counts, Hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial and fungal counts were analysed to evaluate the effect of the activities. Total hydrocarbon content of the soil samples was also analysed.

Results: The populations of the total heterotrophic bacterial, fungal and hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial (HUB) and fungal (HUF) counts of the contaminated soil were enumerated. The mean total heterotrophic bacterial counts in Station 1 around the pot ranged from 2.5 x 105 to 1.8 x 106cfu/g, fungal counts ranged from 2.1 x 103 to 4.4 x 104cfu/g, HUB (HUB) counts ranged from 4.2 x 104 to 6.4 x 105cfu/g and hydrocarbon utilizing fungal (HUF) counts ranged from 1.5 x 103 to 4.0 x 103cfu/g. The results of soil samples taken 20m away from the Pot location ranged from 7.0 x 105 to 8.2 x 106cfu/g for total heterotrophic bacterial counts, fungal counts ranged from 2.3 x 103 to 1.5 x 104cfu/g, HUB ranged from 4.7 x 104 to 5.7 x 105cfu/g and HUF ranged from 2.0 x 103 to 3.5 x 103cfu/g. Also, the results of total heterotrophic bacterial counts for Station 2 ranged from; 4.3 x 105 to 3.3 x 106cfu/g, fungi 2.0 x 103 to 3.3 x 104cfu/g, HUB ranged from 3.8 X 104 to 5.4 x 104cfu/g  and HUF 1.6 x 103 to 3.5 x 103cfu/g, while 20m away from the Pot total heterotrophic bacteria ranged from 1.3 x 107 to 6.5 x 107cfu/g, fungi 5.8 x 103 to 1.4 x 105cfu/g, HUB 5.4 x 104 to 1.1x 105cfu/g and HUF 3.1 x 103 to 4.7 x 104cfu/g. While the control samples taken from inside the community where no such activity is on, ranged from 2.6 x 107 to 7.9 x 107cfu/g for total heterotrophic bacterial counts, total heterotrophic fungal counts ranged from 2.8 x 104 to 5.3 x 104cfu/g, HUB 2.0 x 102 to 3.1 x 102cfu/g and HUF 2.0 x 101 to 2.3 x 101cfu/g. twelve bacterial genera were identified and eight fungal genera: Bacillus, Alcaligenes, Flavobacterium, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Micrococcus, Proteus, Serratia, Enterobacter, Streptococcus, Escherichia, Staphylococcus, Penicillum, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Geotrichum, Candida, and Cladosporium. Total hydrocarbon content ranged from 106 to 281mg/kg across the locations.  When compared with the control, it was observed that the microbial population and diversity were adversely affected. These variations observed in the microbial population are indicative of the effect of the illegal refinery on the soil microorganisms.

Conclusion: The results of this study indicates that the continuous contamination of the soil environment by the activities of illegal crude oil refining, lead to a decrease in microbial population and diversity. This may result in devastating ecological damage, adversely affecting the ecological balance which may affect food chain and in turn animals and humans.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Mutant Alleles Responsible for Chloroquine Resistance among Plasmodium falciparum Isolates in North Central, Nigeria

H. A. Edogun, G. O. Daramola, A. O. Ojerinde, C. O. Esan, A. T. Adegbuyi, F. Adewumi, A. Egbebi, E. F. Akerele, B. R. Oyedeji

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2018/v20i330078

Background: Although chloroquine (CQ) has been officially replaced with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) as first line drug for the treatment of malaria in Nigeria since 2005, a lot of people still believe that chloroquine is more effective chiefly because of the decline in the sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to ACT. Thus resulting into unofficial use of CQ for self medication. This study was conducted in order to survey the current status of chloroquine resistant strains of pfcrt and pfmdr1 in view of possible re-introduction of chloroquine for malaria treatment.

Methods: DNA was extracted from one hundred (100) microscopically confirmed Plasmodium falciparum positive blood samples spotted on 3 mm Whatman filter paper. The detection of mutations in Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt) and Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance (Pfmdr1) genes was performed by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).

Results: Results showed the presence of mutant alleles of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 in 60% and 41% of the samples respectively. However, there was no significant correlation in the prevalence of mutant alleles (T76/Y86) in relation to gender (p = 0.59/ 0.08) and age (p=0.59/0.93) of participants respectively.

Conclusion: The observed high prevalence of chloroquine resistance despite thirteen years of withdrawal calls for serious concern.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Potential of the Stem Barks Aqueous Extract of Albizia ferruginea (Guill. & Perr.) Benth. (Mimosaceae) in Rats and Mice

M. G. Minoué Kuum, A. Fotio Lambou, G. Atsang A. Kiki, M. T. Bella Ndzana, B. A. Keugni, B. Moukette Moukette, C. Mezui, P. D. Dzeufiet Djomeni, T. Dimo

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2018/v20i330079

Aims: The present research was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic potential of aqueous extract of Albizia ferruginea stem bark.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Biology and Physiology (Animal Physiology Laboratory), Faculty of Sciences, University of Yaoundé I. between March 2012 and June 2016.

Methods: Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analyzes were done.The anti-inflammatory effect of the plant extract (100 and 200 mg/kg) was investigated on carrageenan, histamine, serotonin or dextran-induced paw oedema. The analgesic activity was evaluated on acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced nociception, hot plate and tail immersion tests in Swiss albino mice. The antipyretic activity of A. ferruginea extract was assessed on brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia.

Results: Qualitative phytochemical analysis of the AEAF revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoïds, phenols, saponins, tannins, glycosides, tannins and steroids. For quantitative phytochemical analysis, total flavonols represent 0.12±0.04 mg EQT/g dried extract and the total phenol content was 58.69±0.65 mg ECA/g dried extract. The total flavonoids content was 0.18±0.01mg EQT/g dried extract).The total alkaloids presented a grade of 27.45±0.14 mg EBER/g dried extract. Carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin-induced inflammation were significantly inhibited by A. ferruginea’s extract (200 mg/kg), exhibiting 55.47%, 50.26%, 62.88% and 42.59% inhibition, respectively. Acetic acid-induced writhing was significantly reduced by the plant extract. The extract of Albizia ferruginea (200 mg/kg) significantly reduced the second phase of formalin test. The analgesic tests revealed that A. ferruginea had only peripheral analgesic effect. Additionally, the plant’s extract prevented brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats.

Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggest that A. ferruginea’s aqueous extract has anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and antipyretic properties and this strongly supports the ethnopharmacological uses.