Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Study of Antagonistic Capability of Trichoderma harzianum against Aspergillus niger Isolated from Rotten White Yam (Dioscorea rotundata) Tubers

V. I. Gwa, A. O. Nwankiti, E. J. Ekefan

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2019/v21i130080

In vitro antagonistic study using dual culture technique was carried out at Advanced Plant Pathology Laboratory, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria to assess the potential capability of Trichoderma harzianum as a biocontrol agent against Aspergillus niger isolated from rotten yam tubers. The test antagonist (T. harzianum) was introduced at three different times (same time with pathogen, two days before the inoculation of the pathogen and two days after the inoculation of the pathogen). The plates were incubated for 192 hours and measurements of mycelial radial growths were recorded at intervals of 24 hours beginning from the third day. The results of in vitro interactions between T. harzianum and A. niger revealed that T. harzianum was able to significantly (P ≤ 0.05) inhibit the growth of A. niger at the three different times of introduction of T. harzianum and this increased with the time of incubation. T. harzianum grew faster than A. niger and produced inhibition zones which completely stopped the growth of A. niger. Mean percentage growth inhibition was found to be highest (77.79%) when T. harzianum was introduced 2 days before inoculation of A. niger followed by  introduction of T. harzianum same with A. niger (45.96%). The least percentage growth inhibition (28.47%) was recorded when T. harzianum was introduced 2 days after inoculation of A. niger. In all cases, T. harzianum was observed to be effective at checking the growth of A. niger in vitro and therefore showed the capability for the biological control of the pathogen. It is therefore recommended that for effective in-vitro control of A. niger, T. harzianum should be introduced 2 days before the arrival of A. niger.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Farmers’ Indigenous Knowledge and Preferences: A Tool for Sustainable Lablab Bean (Lablab purpureus. L. Sweet) Improvement and Utilization in Northern Tanzania

Kissa G. Chawe, Pavithravani B. Venkataramana, Patrick A. Ndakidemi

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2019/v21i130081

Participatory farmers’ selection of preferred lablab bean (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet) was conducted in Moshi Rural, Kilimanjaro in northern Tanzania to identify farmers preferred traits and accessions. An experimental plot was laid down in augmented block design where a total of 41 accessions including the local check (Katumani) and improved variety (HA4) were sown in three blocks at the spacing of 75 cm x 40 cm. Semi-structured questionnaire and checklists were prepared to gather the farmers’ preferences and knowledge as well as factors for lablab crop abandonment. The factors for crop abandonment identified were unavailability of quality and improved varieties, low yield, the high cost of agro-chemicals, the presence of diseases and insect pests. In this study, farmers’ selection criteria of the accessions were resistance to diseases and insect pest, the number of pods per plant, early maturity, high yielding capacity, seed colourand size. The results showed that accessions D163 scored higher votes followed by D137, D88, D27, D85, D155, D7, D159, and D151 while the least preferred accession was D140 with Garrets’ mean score of 50.11, 50.06, 50.05, 50.02, 50.00, 49.88, 49.77, 49.59, 49.56 and 49.52, respectively. Farmers’ ranked traits to be incorporated for future bean breeding in order of importance as; high yielding, better taste, earliness and short cooking time. Therefore, successful selection of germplasm through participatory research can raise awareness, adoption, and utilization of the lablab crop which change the portfolio of varieties available in the area and open the new door for plant breeders.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Quisqualis indica Linn. Leaves Extract

Pallavi Pal, Ajeet Singh

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2019/v21i130082

Aim: In this study antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Quisqualis indica leaves was evaluated.

Study Design: In-vitro analysis of Quisqualis indica leaf extract.

Place and Duration of Study: Molecular Biology laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, G.B Pant Engineering College, Pauri, between July 2015 and July 2016.

Methods: Non-enzymatic and enzymatic assays such as DPPH (1, 1diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl), FRAP assay, superoxide dismutase SOD (EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), for radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extracts of Quisqualis indica Linn. plant leaves had done. For estimation of anti-inflammatory action, two methods were employed: protein denaturation method and membrane stabilization method.

Results: Ethanolic extract of leaves on higher concentration had better antioxidant potential when compared with reference standard ascorbic acid. They exhibited strong antioxidant radical scavenging activity values for ethanolic extract of leaves. Results of anti-inflammatory method suggested better potential values for ethanolic extract and compared with standard drug diclofenac sodium respectively. A significant relationship between antioxidant, anti-inflammatory capacity and total phenolic content was examined, indicating that phenolic compounds are the major contributors for the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of this plant.

Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of Q. indica exhibited strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity and this can be used for designing novel drug inhibitors with better efficacy.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Benniseed Oil (Sesamum indicum Linn) on Induced Hypercholesterolemia in Albino Rats

Tomisin Karen Olasunkanmi, Olubunmi Bolanle Ajayi, Braimoh James

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2019/v21i130083

The study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and antitoxicological potential of                    Sesamum indicum Linn seed (benni seed) oil on hypercholesterolemic rat. Albino rats weighing between 120-130 g were divided into two groups, group 1, was fed with normal rat diet(normal control), groups 2 was fed 1% cholesterol and 20% soya bean oil for 3 weeks to induce hypercholesterolemic state. Group 2 was later divided into groups 2, 3 and 4, group 2 was untreated, groups 3 and 4 were later fed with 5% and 10% Sesamum indicum L. seed oil incorporated in normal rat diet for another 6 weeks respectively. Significant (P<0.05) increase in lipid peroxidation (TBARs) and reduction in superoxide dismutate (SOD) and catalase (CAT) was observed in the liver of the hypercholesterolemic rats as compared to the normal control. At the same time, the oxidative stress causes significant (P<0.05) increase in serum level of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of hypercholesterolemic rats.

Administering Sesamum indicum Linn seed oil significantly reduced (P<0.05), serum ALT, AST, ALP and lipid peroxidation, elevated the level of SOD and CAT in the liver of Sesamum oil treated hypercholesterolemic rats.

These findings indicate that Sesamum indicum Linn seed oil show possible prevention of hepatic stress by high cholesterol and free radical mediated oxidative stress in cells of experimental hypercholesterolemic rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Crude and Chitosan Nano-particles Extracts of Some Maggots as Antioxidant and Anticancer Agents

Ahmed I. Hasaballah

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2019/v21i130084

The antioxidant effects besides anticancer activities of Musca domestica, Lucilia sericata and Chrysomya albiceps maggots extracts against human liver carcinoma (HepG-2) and human colon carcinoma (HCT-116) were investigated. Two kinds of extracts, crude and chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) were prepared. The antioxidant activity of different tested extracts was performed by DPPH radical scavenging method, the results obtained revealed that, the highest levels of DPPH scavenging activity were exhibited by the crude extracts of tested maggots with preference to C. albiceps extract, which exhibited a much more potent activity followed by L. sericata and M. domestica in crude and CNPs extracts. Crude extracts have lower anticancer activity than the CNPs extracts; however, the lowest percentage of cell viability (6.7±0.7%) was recorded by L. sericata crude extract against HCT-116, followed by C. albiceps crude extract (7.57±1.25%) against HepG-2 at the highest used concentration 100 µg/ml. The strongest anticancer activity was observed with CNPs extracts and it was recorded at concentrations of 80, 90 and 100 µg/ml against cell lines tested. Depending on Median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of maggots crude and CNPs extracts, the IC50 values were in the range of 37.3 to 74.3 µg/ml and the highest anticancer activity was obtained by C. albiceps CNPs extracts against cell lines tested. In conclusion, both tested extracts have optimistic antioxidant activity. CNPs extracts have great therapeutic potential due to its anticancer inducing activities.