Open Access Original Research Article

Factorial Design Based Bench-scale Production of Collagenase by Pseudomonas sp. Found in Protein Waste of Himalayan Region

Manisha Gautam, Gautam Jamra, Nisha, Wamik Azmi

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2019/v21i230085

The current study was focused on factorial design based bench-scale production of collagenase by Pseudomonas sp. Chemical and fermentation conditions including medium components (carbon, nitrogen, and growth supplements) were optimized. The medium containing sucrose, tryptone and gelatin substrate was found to enhance the production of collagenase. The physical parameters (agitation speed and aeration rate) were also optimized. Moreover, the interactive effect of optimized physicochemical parameters using two levels of six factors (26) of factorial design was studied for the maximum collagenase production. Among 64 combinations, the 57th combination was shown maximum 1.43 U/mL collagenase activity. The bench-scale production of collagenase was achieved in a 6 L working volume laboratory fermenter. The bench-scale fermenter produced 2.3-fold enhanced collagenase activity at reduced cultivation time (14th h) in comparison to the shake flask (24th h). The lead combination can be used for the large scale collagenase production in industrial fermenters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological and Physicochemical Characteristic of Degrading Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Kernel and Cashew (Anacardium occidental) Nut Oils

Ariyo Dokun Olanrewaju, Ayodele Bosede Adetutu, Fasusi Oluwaseun Adeyinka

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2019/v21i230086

Aim: For vegetable oil produce in Nigeria to be competitive in the international market and suitable for downstream applications. The Microbiological and Physicochemical Characteristic of oils are amongst the most important properties that must be studied.

Study Design: The study is design to isolate and identify microorganisms involved in degradation of palm kernel and cashew nut oils and to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of the oil samples during storage.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted between April and September, 2015 at the Microbiology Laboratory of the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Palm kernel and cashew nut seeds were purchased from Oja Oba, Akure, Ondo State. Palm kernel and cashew nut oils were extracted using n-hexane by Soxhlet extractor. The oil samples were stored at room temperature (25°C ± 1) for three months. Microorganisms were isolated from the oil and identified every two weeks of storage. The effect of storage on the physicochemical characteristics (saponification value, peroxide value, acid value and specific gravity) of the oil samples was determined every two weeks of storage.

Results: The microbial profile of the associated organisms consists of Bacillus licheniformis, Staphylococcus aureus, Articosporium inflate, Aspergillus flavus, A. saprophyticus and Penicllium notatum. All the physicochemical parameters determined were increasing with time except the moisture content. Saponification values (SV) obtained for the palm kernel oil samples is 300 mgKOH/g and cashew oil is 400 mgKOH/g while no significant change was observed in the specific gravity of both oils.

Conclusion: The microbial load of the oil sample was low and the physicochemical property is evidence that the oil can be useful in production of soap and cosmetics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Watering Regimes on Yield and Agronomic Traits of Exotic Groundnut Genotypes in Tanzania

Mashamba Philipo, Susan Nchimbi-Msolla

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2019/v21i230087

Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production in rain fed regions of Africa is mostly affected by intermittent drought of different duration and intensity. Improvement of groundnuts for drought tolerance could increase production in drought prone areas. Therefore, this study aimed at (i) determining the effect of Watering regimes on yield and agronomic traits of exotic Groundnut genotypes and (ii) identifying drought tolerant genotypes as source material for breeding and drought tolerant varieties. Thirty groundnut genotypes were evaluated for drought tolerance under well watered and water stress conditions in the screen house at Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), Tanzania. A split plot design with four replications was used whereby the watering regimes were the main plots with varieties planted as subplots Data were recorded on plant height, number of pod/plant and pod yield/plant. Results showed that drought significantly reduced pod yield, number of pods/plant and plant height. Eleven genotypes namely; ICG 2106, ICR 48, ICGS 44, ICG 3053, ICG 11088, ICGV-SM 87003, ICG 12235, ICG 13723, ICGV 02271, ICGV 97182 and ICGV 91114 gave better pod yield and number of pods/plants in water stress conditions and are recommended for use in breeding program as drought tolerant varieties and sources for breeding materials.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acid Phosphatases from the Bread Fruit Artocarpus communis Seeds as Novel Plant Phosphorylating Biocatalysts

Hubert Kouassi Konan, Michel Djary Koffi, Desire Yapi Assoi Yapi, Lucien Patrice Kouame

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2019/v21i230088

Aims: Investigation on the phosphotransferase activity of two non-specific acid phosphatases (EC 3.1.3.2) designated as AP1 and AP2, previously isolated from breadfruit (Artocarpus communis) seeds for further biotechnological and industrial applications.

Methodology: Transphosphorylation reactions were tested with sodium pyrophosphate as the phosphoryl donor and phenol as its acceptor. Transfer products were quantified by using high performance liquid chromatography.

Results: The two acid phosphatases were able to catalyse phosphoconjugates synthesis using pyrophosphate as the phosphoryl donor and phenol as acceptor. The optimal conditions of transphosphorylation reactions indicated that this synthesis was highly dependent on pH, temperature, time course, donor and acceptor concentrations and enzyme amount. A very short period (1.25 h) was observed for these synthesis reactions catalysed by acid phosphatases isolated from breadfruit (Artocarpus communis) seeds. This suggested energy saving during biotransformation processes. The high average yields of 84.20 and 66.78% obtained for AP1 and AP2, respectively, made them useful to phosphorylate a wide range of nucleophile compounds such as nucleotides often used as food additives and pharmaceutical intermediates.

Conclusion: The acid phosphatase AP1 would be the most promising on the basis the better synthesis product yield (84.20%). The two biocatalysts could be considered as new valuable tools for bioprocesses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Bioethanol from Selected Lignocellulosic Agrowastes

Olotu Emmanuel Juwon, Olukunle Folake Oluwatoyin

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2019/v21i230089

This study evaluated the ability of cassava peels, banana peels, orange peels and corn cobs hydrolysates to produce bioethanol. Fibre fractions analysis was carried out using standard methods. The samples were pre-treated with acid and base, followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for bioethanol production. During fermentation, pH, total titratable acidity, reducing sugar, microbial load and bioethanol yield were determined. The reducing sugar yield for Aspergillus niger and Bacillus cereus were 30.28 g and 13.35 g for corn cobs. The pH was observed to decrease during fermentation period with orange peels having the lowest pH of 2.6 after 240 hours of fermentation using A. Niger and S. cerevisiae, when B. cereus and S. Cerevisiae were used the pH was observed to be 4.10.  Total titratable acidity showed increase in all the substrates, with corn cobs having the highest when B. cereus and S. cerevisiae were used (1.62), followed by cassava peels when A. niger and S. cerevisiae were used (1.52). Highest ethanol yield following simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with A. niger and S. cerevisiae was obtained in corn cobs with 17.43 g/100 g, while orange peels gave the lowest with 8.02 g/100 g, the ethanol yield from each substrates as well as the combined substrates were significantly different at p≤ 0.05. The combined substrates (1:1:1:1) gave the highest ethanol yield of 12.44 g/100 g using A. niger and S. cerevisiae.  This study therefore revealed that A. niger had the highest bioethanol yield using corn cobs as the carbon source, therefore it could be used for mass bioethanol production.