Open Access Original Research Article

Functional Expression of Pichia Stipitis XR and XDH Genes into Starter Cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Obtained from Degrading Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Pod Husk Biomass

R. O. Igbinadolor, C. V. Bruschi, A. A. Onilude

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2019/v21i330091

Biobased energy and fuels are among the exercisable sustainable energy options mankind has in the not-so-distant future as issues pertaining to global warming and shortfall in fossil fuels loom dark over the planet. The environmental necessity to stop this development by switching to alternative strategies nowadays is generally undisputed. Biofuel made from biomass provide unique environmental economic strategic benefit and can be considered as safe and by and large, the cleanest liquid fuel alternative to fossil fuels. Biofuel produced from Agricultural waste biomass like cocoa (Theobroma cacao L) pod husk shows many potentials advantages in comparison with sugar or starch-based stocks since the latter materials are also food for human and animals. However, the complex nature of this biomass necessitates the use of genetic techniques to produce engineered organisms that are able to transform this polymer into the desired product. With Bioinformatics tools using NCBI BLAST programme, two genes XL1 and XL2 encoding pentose utilization were isolated from the genomic DNA of Pichia stipitis (CBS 6054) and two primers each were designed to span the full coding region of these genes with attached enzymes restriction sites using DNA strider 1.4f7 and Macplasmap programmes. PCR reactions were carried out on 120hg of the isolated genomic DNA for 30 cycles using the DNA Gotaq polymerase enzyme. The amplified PCR fragments were introduced into plasmid vectors pGAPZA and pVT100-U respectively and the constructs were then used to transform the selected ethanol-producing strain of S. cerevisiae (BY4743) isolated from degrading cocoa pod husk biomass meant to serve as starter for biofuel production from cocoa pod husk hydrolysate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Micro Propagation of Pterocarpus santalinoides Using Three Different Growth Media

S. J. Ameh, C. U. Aguoru, C. C. Iheukwumere, O. J. Olasan, U. J. Alfred

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2019/v21i330092

Aims: Micro propagation of P. santalinoides was carried out in order to ascertain the most appropriate culture media for its micro propagation.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in different growth media in the laboratory.

Place and Duration of Study: The micro propagation of Pterocarpus santalinoides was carried out at the Tissue culture laboratory of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka and lasted between July and October 2018.

Methodology: Seeds from fresh and healthy ripe fruit which was cut open mechanically with the help of secateurs were gotten from Ai-kwu, Otukpa Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. The seeds were air dried and used as explant. The explants were surface sterilized using NaOCl solution for 10 mins, rinsed with distilled water and then the soft seed coat were removed and the seeds were cultured under aseptic conditions on MS medium and other growth medium. Seeds of Pterocarpus santalinoides were inoculated on six different growth media with varying compositions. The media are MS, B5 and white’s without growth hormones (MSoo, B5oo, and WHoo), and each of them was supplemented with 3.0 mgl-1 BAP and 0.5 mgl-1 NAA (MSBN, B5BN, WHBN).

Results: Seed germination improved in all the media studied. However, MS combinations gave the best result (90-93%). The maximum number of leaves and roots recorded was in MSBN (3.8 for leaves and 2 for roots) followed by MSoo (2.6) and WHBN (2.6). The leaf area was best for the MS combination (0.232 cm2) followed by the White’s combinations (0.154 cm2) and least for the B5 combinations (0.026 cm2) while shoot and root length was maximum in MSBN (4.28 cm for the shoot and 1.18 cm for the root) followed by WHBN (1.90 cm). The result for t-test revealed that there was a significant difference between the parameters studied for growth media with growth hormones and those without growth hormones. The recorded percentage germination rate for MS medium without growth hormone was 90.75±0.97 while MS medium supplemented with growth hormone was 93.25±0.25. B5 medium without growth medium was 60.25±0.50 and when supplemented with growth hormone, the value was 66.50±0.57. White medium without growth hormone had a value of 75.25±1.70 and when supplemented with growth hormone the value was 78.0±0.81.

Conclusion: The growth rates of Pterocarpus santalinoides, in MS medium among other basal media (B5 and White) offers a compromise between all the growth parameters which indicates that variation of the basal medium composition could lead to enhanced Pterocarpus santalinoides regeneration efficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Experimental Design for Optimization of β-Xylosidase Production by A. fumigatus Isolated from the Atlantic Forest (Brazil)

Fabíola Giovanna Nesello Vieira, Divair Christ, Luciana Graciano, Juliana Moço Corrêa, Marina Kimiko Kadowaki, José Luis da Conceição Silva, Rinaldo Ferreira Gandra, Alexandre Maller, Maria de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes Poli, Rita de Cássia Garcia Simão

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2019/v21i330093

The production of β-Xylosidase by a new strain of Aspergillus fumigatus (PC-7S-2 M), isolated from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, was analyzed at 28°C using modified Czapeck media supplemented with different agroindustrial residues at 1% (w/v). Conidia were inoculated for 7 days, and the best activity for β- Xylosidase was obtained in the presence of barley brewing residue after 4 days (15 U mL-1). To optimize the production of β-Xylosidase, this carbon source was used for a central composite rotational design (CCRD) to obtain a significance level of p < 0.10, which predicted an enzyme activity of 245.04 U mL-1. The model validation revealed β-Xylosidase activity was optimized at 229.06 U mL-1. Furthermore, the production of intracellular A. fumigatus β-Xylosidase increased by 1,500% (15 times) over that initially obtained, achieving 93.47% of the predicted model. This finding obtained during two years emphasizes the availability of A. fumigatus β-Xylosidase production with possible applications in biotechnological processes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sero-prevalence and Risk Factors for Hepatitis A Virus Infection among Pregnant Women at the Samandin Medical Center, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Rouamba Poda Somda Hortense, Ouoba Jean Bienvenue, Traoré Kuan Abdoulaye, Ouoba Bruno Lalidia, Kagambéga Asséta, Roques Pierre, Barro Nicolas

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2019/v21i330095

Aims: This study determined prevalence and possible risk factors associated with HAV infection and compared Immunochromatography (IgG) rapid point of care test with standard ELISA test for diagnosis.

Study Design:  Cross sectional epidemiological survey.

Place and duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Samandin Medical Center (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso), from July 2017 to December 2017.

Methodology: A total of 180 pregnant women were recruited at the Samandin Medical Center. Anti-HAV IgM and IgG detection tests were performed using AccuDiag™ HAV ELISA kit (Calabasas, CA, USA) and SD BIOLINE HAV IgG/IgM Rapid Diagnostic Test (Gyeonggi-do, Korea).

Results: IgG anti-HAV antibodies (AccuDiag Elisa) were found with a prevalence of 88.9% (160/180) and Anti-HAV IgM were 1.1% (2/180). Of the 160 AccuDiag HAV IgG positive samples, 44.4% (80/180) tested positive using SD BIOLINE Diagnostics HAV IgG. Regarding risk factors, 86.9% (86/99) of the IgG positive women were illiterate; 90.7% (39/43) lived mostly in peripheral areas; 89.2% (74/83) were household workers and 88.6% (93/105) used fountain water.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrated poor agreement between the assays tested, which are consistent with previous reports demonstrating significant variability between HAV ELISA and RDT HAV. Moreover, the detection of HAV specific IgM antibodies in two asymptomatic pregnant women signaled the current circulation of HAV in this area.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Apple Cider Vinegar on the Lipid Profile and Electrolytes of Wistar Rats

Ngozi Franca Okoye, Sinenye Barikpoa Porolo

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2019/v21i330097

Aim: This study was to investigate the effects of apple cider vinegar with “the mother” on lipid profile and electrolytes of Wistar rats.

Materials and Methods: Twelve female albino rats with mean weight of 150±20 were grouped into four groups. The first group was the control. The control was given distilled water and allowed access to normal animal feed ad libitum but was not administered apple cider vinegar. The second group was the group to be sacrificed after the first week of experiment.  The group was given distilled water, allowed access to normal animal feed ad libitum and administered 1ml apple cider vinegar solution twice daily. The third group was the group to be sacrificed after the second week of experiment. The group had same treatment as the second group above. The fourth group was the group to be sacrificed after the third week which was the final week of experiment. The group had same treatment like the second and third groups.

Results: After oral administration of the apple cider vinegar on rats for 7 days up to 21 days, the results revealed that the significant reductions in a time dependent manner with the highest reductions obtained on the last week of experiment (p<0.05). After 21 days, triglycerides reduced from 3.37 ± 0.14 to 2.73 ± 0.13 mmol/l, total cholesterol from 4.04 ± 0.98 to 3.62 ± 0.33, low density lipoprotein cholesterol from 8.24 ± 1.31 to 7.02 ± 0.30, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol from 1.55 ± 0.07 to 1.42 ± 0.04mmol/l in the blood of rats. It also revealed a significant decrease (p< 0.05) in calcium electrolyte concentration from 11.54 ± 0.21 to 7.09 ± 0.20 mmol/l. It also revealed significant decrease (p<0.05) in the sodium and elevation in potassium electrolytes concentrations from 153.63 ±0.24 to 120.30 ± 1.31 and 3.61 ± 0.30 to 4.92± 0.46 mmol/l respectively.

Conclusion: The results suggested that the apple cider vinegar reduced triglycerides and cholesterol levels in the blood of Wistar rats. The results also suggested that apple cider vinegar reduced calcium and sodium electrolyte levels in the blood but increased potassium levels in the blood of Wistar rats based on the 1ml administration for 21 days.