Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Composition of Ethanol Extract of a Cocktail Herbal Mixture (Aju Mbaise)

A. T. Nnadiukwu, C. C. Monago-Ighorodje, L. C. Chuku

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2019/v22i130103

Aim: This study was carried out to determine the phytochemical constituent of ethanol extract of Aju Mbaise herbal mixture.

Study Design: In the course of the experiment, fresh samples of the plants that make up Aju Mbaise were collected and identified as Cnestis ferruginea, Xylopia aethiopica, Uvaria chamae, Palisota hirsuta, Scleria sp., Napoleona imperialis, Dialium guineense, Combretum racemosun, and Heterotis rotundifolia respectively. The fresh plants were air-dried, cut into small pieces and blended before the extraction process. Ethanol was used as the extraction solvent.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Research Laboratory of the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, in July 2018.

Methodology: The qualitative phytochemical analysis was determined by Standard methods described by Sofowara (1993), for testing alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids, while the quantitative phytochemical was estimated spectrophotometrically.

Results: The phytochemical result showed the presence of alkaloids (8.69%), flavonoids (19.10%), glycosides (6.86%), hydrogen cyanide (0.92%), phenols (31.56%), saponins (0.83%), steroids (0.94%), tannins (16.80%), and terpenoids (14.31%).

Conclusion: The study showed that ethanol extract of Aju Mbaise herbal mixture contains tremendous amount of phytochemicals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-cytoskeleton Immunoscreening of Trypanosoma brucei Expression Library Reveals Novel Immunogenic Conserved Putative Proteins

Begumisa Godfrey Magyezi, Okalang Uthman, Musisi Kenneth, Wampadde Eddie Mwijjwiga, Lubega W. George

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2019/v22i130104

Background: The overall shape of the trypanosome is defined by an internal cytoskeleton consisting of a network of microtubules that are cross linked both to each other and the inner face of the plasma membrane. However, the total compliment and identity of the trypanosome cytoskeleton proteins are not yet fully determined despite the fact that some of them may be good targets for diagnostics, drugs and/or vaccines discovery.

Methods: In this study, rabbit anti-Trypanosoma brucei detergent insoluble cytoskeleton sera were produced in vivo and used to probe a T. brucei expression library. The picked plaques were made clonal by a series of library screening followed by PCR amplification, cDNA sequencing and identification of the proteins coded by these sequences using BLAST.

Results: The previously well-known cytoskeleton proteins (paraflagella rod protein and histone H2B), putative cytoskeleton proteins (Dynein light chain and nucleoporin), conserved hypothetical protein (Tb10.61.2430) and novel cytoskeleton protein coding cDNA sequences (not in the sequenced and published T. brucei genome) were identified in this study.

Conclusion: This approach is therefore, useable in the search for novel proteins whose utility in the design and development of diagnostics, drugs and/or vaccines can further be studied.

Open Access Original Research Article

Survey of Cultural Practices and Assessment of Some Foliar Fungi Diseases of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

Sylvester Fungyiang Sanyang, Aoudou Yaouba, Tonjock Rosemary Kinge, Christopher Mubeteneh Tankou

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2019/v22i130105

Aims: To assess the different cultural activities that influence the spread of fungal diseases on common bean and record the prevalence, severity and incidence of the diseases in some localities of the Western Highlands of Cameroon.

Study Design:  Structured questionnaire, Field survey, Laboratory identification of fungal diseases.

Place and Duration of Study: Some subdivisions of the Western Highlands of Cameroon and Departments of Crop Protection University of Dschang and Catholic University of Cameroon Bamenda from May 2016 –December 2017.

Methodology: Field inspection formats were developed in the form of structured questionnaire and interview guide to record data related to farmer’s agronomic practices. A total of two hundred and eighty farmers and other stakeholders were interviewed on various aspects of agronomic practices. The survey of foliar fungal diseases was done in 2017 second cropping season (August to December) following the main roads and accessible routes in each surveyed area. Stops were made randomly every 1-2km intervals depending on the proximity of farm field to one another. Three sampling sites per farm were assessed for disease prevalence, incidence and severity using the CIAT evaluation scale of 1-9. Leaf samples were culture in PDA.

Results: Majority of farmers practiced shifting cultivation and mixed cropping. The organic fertilizer poultry manure is widely used closely followed by pig, cow and goat dung. As regards mineral fertilizers, 59.7% of farmers indicated the application of different inorganic fertilizers on their farms. The results indicated that the highest observed diseases in the various localities were angular leaf spot, rust, anthracnose, white mould, leaf yellowing, floury leaf spot and Ascochyta leaf spot in that descending order in terms of  prevalence, incidence and severity.

Conclusion: From the assessment, angular leaf spot is a serious threat to common bean production in these localities. Its spread and that of the other fungal diseases is greatly influenced by the various cultural practices. Proper agronomic practices and information on disease monitoring are key to the improvement of bean cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biocorrosion Inhibitory Potential of Aqueous Extract of Phyllanthus amarus against Acid Producing Bacteria

W. F. Briggs, H. O. Stanley, G. C. Okpokwasili, O. M. Immanuel, C. J. Ugboma

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2019/v22i130106

Biocorrosion is a form of corrosion of metallic and concrete materials mediated by microorganisms. Acid producing bacteria are major culprits in the corrosion of materials in the environment. This study focused on the inhibition of biocorrosion by acid producing bacteria using aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus (PAAE). Acid producing bacteria were isolated from produced water samples collected from oilfields located in Niger Delta, Nigeria. Multiple fermentation tube technique was adopted for the isolation of the acid producing bacteria using phenol red dextrose broth as culture broth medium. The gravimetric analysis was performed with different concentrations of the plant extract incorporated in universal culture bottles containing broth, sample and carbon steel coupon. The setup was incubated at 20ºC, 30ºC and 40ºC for 7 days and for 14 days. The least corrosion rate (CR) at 20ºC, 30ºC and 40ºC for the 7 days test were 1.446mp/y (80mg/ml PAAE); 27.558mp/y (5 mg/mlLeu+20 mg/ml PAAE) and 5.134 mp/y (80 mg/ml PAAE) with corresponding inhibition efficiency (IE) of 81.92, 87.750 and 80.91 respectively. For the 14 days, the CR values at 20ºC, 30ºC and 40ºC were: 3.192mp/y (5mg/mlLeu+20mg/ml PAAE); 1.458 mp/y (5 mg/mlLeu + 20 mg/ml PAAE) and 117.345mp/y (5 mg/mlLeu + 20 mg/ml PAAE) with corresponding IE of 86.09, 83.87 and 98.89 respectively. The results obtained show that the extract could be considered as a good inhibitor for the biocorrosion of carbon steel mediated by acid producing bacteria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Seed Source, Moisture Content and Duration of Storage on the Viability of Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn

A. F. Aderounmu, I. O. Asinwa

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2019/v22i130107

Viability of tropical seeds is crucial in plantation establishment. Temperature – moisture duration relationship of the seed is of great significance in seed viability. 3000 ripe fruits of V. paradoxa C. F. Gaertn were collected from each of three sources where it is endemic: Eruwa, Sakiand New-Bussa. The fruits were depulped; a sample of 100 seeds was drawn from each of the three sources and sown in washed and sterilized river sand to monitor the germination percentage of the seeds. The seeds were dried under dehumidifier to attain two moisture contents (43% and 32%). Thereafter, each seed lot from the three sources was divided into two batches (A and B) of 1200 seeds each, divided into four and stored at four different temperature regimes: -20°C, 5°C, 22°C and 28± 2°C. Samples were taken monthly for germination test for six months. Data were subjected to percentages and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed that freshly collected seeds of V. paradoxa had 98% germination when sown within 48 hours of fallen and collection which eventually dropped to 4.4% after the six months storage. Storage temperature had significant effect (P > 0.05) on germination of the seeds. Seeds stored at 28±2°C had the highest mean germination (72.2%), those stored at 22°C had 70.2% while seeds stored at -20°C and 5°C failed to germinate. The seeds of V. paradoxa readily lost viability with time, hence fallen fruits should be collected during fruiting season processed and sown immediately or within 7 days of collection.