Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Invertase Activity Produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae as Source of Sucrose Degradation in Sugarcane Juice

Blei Sika Hortense, Adje Hoba Kevin, Angaman Djédoux Maxime, Amiepo N’cho Patrice

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2019/v22i330114

The decline in purity of sugarcane juice used for the production of sucrose leads to huge losses in food processing chains. However, this sugar is much consumed by the population. Knowledge of the degradation origin of sucrose in the process of transformation is therefore necessary. It was more precisely a matter of assessing the quality of four sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) juice of different varieties (R 570, R 590, Co 997 and SP 711406) by determining their physicochemical parameters and by highlighting the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and invertase activity produced. These analyses were conducted in the Agrovalorization laboratory of the UFR Agroforesterie; University Jean Lorougnon Guédé, between November 2018 and February 2019. Thus, all juices are acidic (pH 5.05 ± 0.13) with average dry matter and sugar contents of 16.70 ± 1.04 and 59.03 ± 5.02, respectively, with favorable conditions for yeasts proliferation. In addition, S. cerevisiae was found in three juices (R 590, Co 997 and SP 711406) with a specific invertase activity of 0.42 10-2 IU / mg protein. This activity would be the basis of the degradation of sucrose in crude sugarcane juice. On the other hand, the juice resulting from the variety R 570 contained germ deprived of invertase activity (1.57 10-5 IU / mg of proteins). Its use would be a good source of crude materials for optimizing sugar production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation in Sensory Properties of Liquid Extract Formulations Processed from Capsicum spp Varieties Sold in Abidjan

Sidibe Daouda, Coulibaly Adama, Nyamien Yves Bléouh Jean, Konan N’Guessan Ysidor, N’cho Carine, Biego Godi Henri Marius

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2019/v22i330115

Aims: Peppers are common raw spices facing significant post-harvest lost in the handling train. This study was carried out to promote the production of pepper concentrate as spices extracts for foods.

Study Design: Composite extracts formulated from raw peppers extracts using Central Composite Design, and resulted formulations submitted to sensory analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, Training and Research Unit of Biosciences, Felix Houphouet-Boigny University, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, between June and October 2018.

Methodology: Using a central composite design, 25 peppers extract formulations (F1 to F25) were processed from raw extracts of four pepper varieties growing in Côte d’Ivoire, namely cultivars ‘’pili pili’’ and ‘’bill of bird’’ (Capsicum frutescens), ‘’pepper baoulé’’ (Capsicum annuum), and ‘’big sun’’ (Capsicum chinense). These formulations were then subjected to sensory descriptive and sensory acceptance analyses by panellists about the color appearance, the pungency flavor, the fluidity aspect, and the typical pepper aroma.

Results: The sensory perception of pungency, fluidity, and aroma didn’t differentiate the formulations. But four formulations (F18, F20, F21, and F24) evidenced more intensive orange- yellowish appearance (4.44/7, 5.33/7, 4.33/7, and 4.67/7, respectively). From these formulations, samples F18 and F20 have been more enjoyed as food spices, with respective scores of 76.17% and 77.76% panellists.

Conclusion: Both formulations F18 and F20 could be used as significant baselines in peppers extract processing for food interests.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantitative Comparison of Oral Site-specific DNA Isolates Reveals Differential Outcomes

Graydon Carr, Arvin Alexander, Kevin Dionisio, Karl Kingsley

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2019/v22i330116

Introduction: More and more evidence has accumulated that suggests salivary sampling may provide direct analysis of oral conditions and microbial constituents, but may also be useful in the diagnosis and early detection of other chronic diseases. Although multiple methods of oral sampling currently exist, some methods are prohibitively expensive or based upon technologies not ubiquitously available at public health centers or state-funded colleges. This study provides a comparative analysis of DNA concentrations and quality from five specific oral sites derived using sterile paper points, including the gingival crevice between the upper central incisors, biofilm of the upper first molar, lingual incisor, and the dorsum of the tongue for comparison with unstimulated saliva collection.

Methods: This study analyzed previously collected unstimulated saliva and paper point samples. In brief, DNA was isolated from each using TRIzol (phenol: Chloroform) extraction and DNA quantification and quality was measured using a NanoDrop spectrophotometer at 260 and 280 nm.

Results: Analysis of Paper Point (PP) biofilm sampling sites from upper first molar, lower incisor, and dorsum of the tongue revealed similar average DNA concentrations, ranging between 14,342 ng/uL and 14,402 ng/uL (p=0.9851). Although variations were observed between different patients, samples from different oral sites within the same patient were strikingly similar, R=0.8355. Comparison of DNA isolated from fluids, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and unstimulated saliva revealed average DNA concentrations that were similar to the biofilm sampling sites (14,686 ng/uL and 13,743 ng/uL, respectively), which were not significantly different from one another (p=0.7893). DNA concentrations ranged considerably between patients (low = 4,410 ng/uL; high = 48,783 ng/uL), but were most similar with different samples (GCF, saliva) from the same patient (Pearson’s R=0.6979). In addition, DNA purity measured by A260:A280 nm absorbance did not reveal any significant difference among sampling sites (range 1.62 – 1.70; p=0.427).

Discussion: Although many methods are available to provide oral sampling, simple and low-cost methods such as paper point sampling, unstimulated saliva collection and buccal swabs may represent tools that provide sufficient DNA quality and quantity for molecular screening. In addition, although heterogeneity between patient samples will always be present – samples from various oral sites within the same patient may provide roughly equivalent DNA samples for further screening and molecular analysis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Computational Analysis of the Sequences of LIPE Gene of Selected Ruminants and Non-ruminants

Rasheed B. Fatai, Mabel O. Akinyemi, Osamede Henry Osaiyuwu

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2019/v22i330117

Tropically adapted farm animals are characterized by low meat and milk productivity. Traditionally, mass selection has been widely employed in breeding for improved animal performance. However, improving animal productivity using mass selection is laborious and usually less effective. Advances in molecular techniques such as DNA sequencing analysis provide the opportunity to characterize meat and milk influencing genes, which can lead to faster genetic improvement but often unaffordable and expensive particularly in developing countries. Unlike the wet laboratory analysis, computational molecular analyses is comparatively cheaper in pre-screening of the functional impacts of nonsynonymous single-nucleotide variants of some performance traits-related genes such as hormone-sensitive lipase (LIPE).

A total of fifteen (15) LIPE nucleotide sequences comprising pig (3), cattle (3), water buffalo (2), camel (2), goat (2) and sheep (3) were retrieved from the Genbank. Also, twenty (20) functionally associated genes with the LIPE gene including perilipin 1, 2 & 5 protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha, protein kinase X-linked were determined using the GeneMANIA.

Functional analysis of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism using PROVEAN showed that ten amino acid substitutions (S216C, P107del, Q28_P29insRATHVA, S41_S44dup, A640M, S940A, L660I,  D86delinsWA, S1000F) in water buffalo and pig (X678E, V789K, G987del, T218K, Q2234del, L278H, Q321del, L1023delinsPKL, P1452V, H1267delinsRFT), nine in sheep (F67_P68delinsVQ, R24G, A247_R248dup, L122L, L144P, S149K, S125S,  S224H, G148M) and goats (A450Y, P480H, G490delinsPHQ, L500R, R550del, S100_S101dup, E600S, A700Q, P754delinsQAW) and five in camel (A320A, S210S, L130L, T400T, L440I) were found neutral indicating their beneficial effect while only T110A out of the fifteen amino acid substitutions was found deleterious in cattle. The obtained phylogenetic trees from the nucleotide sequences showed a closer relationship among the members of the Bovidae family particularly the sheep and cattle.

This information may aid future research that aims at the selection of the studied animals for improved meat and milk quality traits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Malaria Parasite Infection in Some Periurban and Rural Communities in Ekiti State, Nigeria

O. F. Olorunniyi, O. A. Idowu, A. B. Idowu, O. R. Pitan, A. S. Babalola

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2019/v22i330118

Introduction: Malaria is one of the leading parasitic diseases worldwide with Nigeria ranked the topmost country in the tropical Africa where the disease is prevalent. This study was designed with the aim to determine the prevalence of malaria parasite (MP) infection in some periurban and rural communities of Ekiti State being one of the 36 states of Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: Three periurban and rural communities were randomly selected in Ekiti State for the study. Blood samples were collected and examined microscopically for the presence of MP in dry and raining seasons among human volunteers in each community. Prevalence of MP infection was determined.

Results: Overall prevalence of MP infection was 26% in dry season and 38% in raining season (P = .001). In dry season, prevalence of MP infection was 22.3% in periurban communities and 31.3% in rural communities (P = .001). During the raining season the prevalence was 39.8% in periurban and 35.9% in rural communities (P = .12), with Plasmodium falciparum being the dominant species. Children of 0-5 years had the highest prevalence of infection (61.1%) during raining season while teenagers between 16-20 years had the highest prevalence of infection (31.5%) in the dry season. Generally, there was an increase in malaria parasite density during raining season.

Conclusion: This study confirmed the existence of MP infection in Ekiti State. The distribution of MP infection in both periurban and rural communities was affected by season with higher prevalence occurring during the raining season.