Open Access Short Research Article

Effect of the Leaf Extract of Bidens pilosa on Haemostasis

Pade Benard, Banson Barugahare

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 18-22
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2020/v23i530155

Aims: To determine the effect of the leaf extract of Bidens pilosa on the rate of haemostasis and validate its traditional use application to fresh wounds.

Study Design: Experimental

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Biology Department, Faculty of Science and Education, Busitema University and Nagongera Health Center IV laboratory between April and May 2019.

Methodology: Different concentrations of the extract were applied to blood samples. Whole venous blood was collected by vein puncture in heparin tubes. The rate of clotting in presence and absence of the extract was determined. The experiment was replicated.

Results: Increase in the concentration of the extract decreased the rate of haemostasis. Statistical analysis with a two-way ANOVA was significant, P = 0.02 at a 95% CI.

Conclusion: High concentration Bidens pilosa leaf extract decreases the rate of haemostasis but may have other healing activities attributed to its historical and traditional use and application to fresh wounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Selected Antioxidant and Anti-nutrient Content and Palynological Evaluation of Honey Samples from Southern Guinea Savanna Vegetation of Nigeria

Reginald C. Njokuocha

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2020/v23i530153

Aims: To investigate the presence of selected antioxidant and anti-nutrient and pollen profile of four honey samples from the southern guinea savanna vegetation of Nigeria.

Study Design: Purposive sampling method was used in selecting the study areas for the honey samples

Place and Duration of Study: The study was done in the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, between June to October, 2019.

Methodology: The analyzed antioxidants (flavonoids, total phenols, vitamin C and alkaloids) and anti-nutrient (phytate and oxalate) were subjected to standard chemical treatment in four replicates.  The stock samples of the honeys were thoroughly shaken and 10g collected from each sample for pollen analysis. Each sample was dissolved in acidified warm (40°C) water, centrifuged at 2000 rpm and the residues collected. Subsequently, they passed through standard acetolysis treatment. The polliniferous deposits were put in specimen bottles containing glycerol-alcohol. Routine pollen counts and identification were done at x400 magnifications. The pollen counts were presented as percentage values, while results obtained from the chemical analyses were subjected to analysis of variance and mean separation test using Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test at P=.05.

Results: All the selected antioxidants (flavonoids, total phenols, vitamin C and alkaloids) and anti-nutrients (phytate and oxalate) analyzed were detected in variable quantities in the samples. The honeys were acidic having pH range within acceptable internationally standard. Eighty-two pollen types (39 families) were recorded and composed of nectariferous (90.2%) and non-nectariferous (9.8%) plants. All the honey samples were polyfloral and the most common pollen types occurring across the samples were Elaeis guineensis, Asteraceae and Phyllanthus muellerianus.

Conclusion: The honey samples were acidic and contained the selected antioxidants and anti-nutrients parameters in variable quantities. The honey samples were polyfloral with a high number of nectariferous and few non-nectariferous honey plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Study on the In vivo Anti-neuroinflammatory Effects of Khaya grandifoliola and Cymbopogon citratus Polysaccharide Fractions

K. F. Mediesse, G. Matharasala, T. Boudjeko, P. Yogeeswari

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 23-32
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2020/v23i530156

Aims: To determine the effects of polysaccharide fractions named KGF and CCF respectively for Khaya grandifoliola stem bark and Cymbopogon citratus leaves on Central Nervous System (CNS) depression and on systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced brain inflammation and hyperalgesia in BALB/c.

Methodology: BALB/c mice weighing about 25-35 g were used for the experimentation. Depressant effects of polysaccharide fractions were firstly evaluated using Rota Rod and Actophotometer apparatus. Secondly, LPS or saline solution (5 mg/kg) was Intraperitoneally administered (i.p.) 1 hour after oral administration of polysaccharide fractions (100 mg/kg test dose, p.o.) or distilledwater. Then, the hot plate and tail-flick models were performed 1 hour after LPS injection to determine thermal hyperalgesia and brain inflammation, was examined 3 hours after LPS injection by Luminex assay.

Results:Systemic LPS administration resulted in a reduction of pain response latency and an increasing expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) genes in brain after 24 hours. From the results it was observed that treatment with KGF and CCF (100 mg/kg, p.o) significantly attenuated LPS-induced hyperalgesia and overexpression of brain levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α genes dependent on inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway in BALB/c without CNS depressant properties.

Conclusion: The present findings confirm the potential of KGF and CCF in the treatment of neuroinflammation-related diseases and it warrant further testing for the development of a new chemical entities. However further studies are required for determination of effective dose and mechanism of action associated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Changes in Chlorophyll and Protein Contents of Vigna unguiculata, Glycine max, Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor Raised in Soil Incorporated with the Shoots of Tithonia rotundifolia

O. J. Ilori, O. O. Otusanya

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 33-39
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2020/v23i530157

Tithonia. rotundifolia is an allelopathic weed that grows in association with cultivated crops in Nigeria. Allelopathy is a phenomenon of plant releasing allelochemicals into the environment that can inhibit or stimulate the growth of other plants and microorganisms. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of soil incorporated with the fresh shoots of T. rotundifolia on chlorophyll and protein accumulation of Vigna unguiculata L. Glycine max L., Zea mays L. and Sorghum bicolor L.  250 g of fresh shoots of T. rotundifolia were worked into each plot of 2 m2 dimension and the test crops were sown in the plots. Plots with no T. rotundifolia shoots were included as control plots. The experiment was performed in completely randomized block design (CRBD). The parameters measured were chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b total chlorophyll and protein content. The results showed a stimulation in chlorophyll contents in the test crops except inhibition in chl b and total chlorophyll in Zea mays L. Also, there was a stimulation of protein in Zea mays L. and Sorghum bicolor L. The study suggests that incorporation of shoots of Tithonia rotundifolia could imparts stimulatory allelopathic effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Heavy Metal Concentration in Fruit Samples from Three Major Markets during the Wet Season in Enugu State

G. I. Ameh, L. C. Ogbodo

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 40-46
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2020/v23i530158

The effect of seasonal changes on heavy metals concentration in three commonly edible fruits in Enugu State was analyzed. Banana, pineapple and watermelon samples were collected during three rainy season months (June, July and August) from three markets in the three districts of Enugu state (Enugu North, Enugu West and Enugu East). Heavy metals evaluated during the study include lead, cadmium, cobalt, nickel, zinc and copper. Metals in the samples were quantified using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) at specific wave lengths and values reported in mg/kg. The result of the study showed the maximum and minimum values of heavy metals observed in all the samples were; 0.28 – 0.03 mg/kg, 0.22 – 0.01 mg/kg, 0.13 – 0.01 mg/kg, 0.64 – 0.33 mg/kg, 0.69 – 0.01 mg/kg and 13.88 – 1.42 mg/kg for lead, cadmium, nickel, cobalt, copper and zinc respectively. The quantity of metals in all the samples, on average, reduces as the rainy season month progresses. The order of heavy metal concentrations in the fruit samples from the markets were in the following decreasing order; Nsukka market> Ogbete market> Ezeagu market. Banana fruit showed the highest concentration of heavy metals while watermelon showed the least heavy metal concentration. Values obtained were compared to WHO maximum permissible limit for each metal. Environmental pollution should be prevented in market areas to avoid food poisoning from consumption of contaminated food.