Open Access Original Research Article

Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals Using Some Selected Leguminous Crops

G. I. Ameh, H. O. Nwamba, V. S. Njom, E. C. Ofordile

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2020/v23i630159

The phytoremediation of heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, copper and lead) using Phaseolus vulgaris and Arachis hypogaea were investigated using standard techniques. Heavy metal polluted soil samples were collected from Crush Rock Industries Ishiagu, Ebonyi State and heavy metal free soil samples (used as control) were obtained from Ebonyi State Ministry of Agriculture, Ishiagu Station. The seeds of the two plants were collected from the Enugu State Ministry of Agriculture. The experimental setup consists of 4 contaminated potted soils each of P. vulgaris and A. hypogaea. Another 4 potted soils not contaminated with heavy metals served as control. Soil analysis was carried out prior to planting. The polluted soil sample had slightly acidic pH (pH was 6.34±0.29), higher Cation Exchange Capacity (21.80±0.33), higher Cd (25.18±0.34), Cr (10.20±0.21), Cu (28.54±0.49) and Pb (9.92±0.36) levels but lesser soil organic carbon (0.87±0.10). After the duration of 62 days the plants were harvested, their leaves and roots were digested and subjected to further experimental tests [determination of Metal concentration, transfer factor and bioaccumulation factor (BAF)]. A. hypogaea showed highest Cd translocation factor 1.63±0.08, TF<1 was observed in all the plants examined for Cr. A. hypogaea showed the highest BAF for Cd, (1.16±0.08). BAF<1 was observed for Cr and Cu in the two plants examined. The BAF of A. hypogaea was higher than that of P. vulgaris. Plants from the control showed zero to very minute concentration of heavy metals in their tissues. Although the study plants are food crops, they can also play a role in the phytoremediation of some heavy metals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Toxicity and Bioremediation of Contaminated Drinking Water Sources in Delta State, Nigeria

Daniel Olorunfemi, Richard Uzakah, Romeo Ofomata, Charles Okoruwa

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 8-16
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2020/v23i630160

Drinking water samples were collected from boreholes in six locations in Ughelli and environs in Delta State of Nigeria and were treated by filtration through a substrate colonized with mycelium of Pleurotus tuber-regium. Water samples were analysed for pH, heavy metal concentration and microbiological content before and after filtration. Results obtained showed that the pH of unfiltered water samples were acidic (5.0 – 5.8) and below the WHO and SON permissible limits for drinking water. The same trend was followed by the concentrations of heavy metals such as lead, iron, zinc and chromium. Water samples from all six locations also had high total bacterial and coliform counts. Filtration through the mycelium colonized substrate showed adjustment of pH to a range within the WHO permissible limits. Reduction in heavy metal concentration ranged from  45.0 – 100%. Total bacterial count of mycofiltered water samples was impressively reduced by 77.3 – 100% and coliform count was not detected. The results obtained in this study makes mycofiltration a potential cost-effective and efficient technique for the treatment of potable water for domestic use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Efficacy, Secondary Metabolite Constituents, Ligand Docking of Enantia chlorantha on Selected Multidrug Resistance Bacteria and Fungi

Thonda Oluwakemi Abike, Oludare Temitope Osuntokun, Aladejana Oluwatoyin Modupe, Ajadi Fatima Adenike, Akinyemi R. Atinuke

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 17-32
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2020/v23i630161

This study aimed at determining the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial efficacy of Enantia chlorantha on multidrug resistance microorganisms.And also to study the interaction of plant secondary metabolite (phytochemicals) from Enantia chlorantha with three proteins. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts of E. chlorantha (leaf and stem bark) against selected microorganisms was done using agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were also determined using standard methods. The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening of E. chlorantha were also determined. The molecular docking was determined using in-silico techniques and was elucidated. Protein generation, Ligand generation and Ligand Docking using GLIDE were determined. Standard precision (SP) flexible ligand docking was carried out in Glide of Schrödinger-Maestro 11.1 and the extra-precision (XP) mode. The crude extracts tested showed antimicrobial activities against all the test bacterial and fungal isolates for the stem bark extract while the leaf extract showed antimicrobial activities against some of the isolates with little differences. The zones of inhibition ranges between 9mm-24mm at 100mg/ml for the ethanol extract and 10mm-13mm at 12.5mg/ml. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) at which the isolates were sensitive to the various extracts differed and the MIC values ranged from 12.5mg/ml to 100mg/ml while the MBC for the organisms ranged from 25mg/ml to 100mg/ml.The qualitative phytochemical screening of Enantia chlorantha leaf and stem bark revealed the presence of medicinally active constituent such as cardiac glycoside, steroids, anthraquinone,tannin, saponin, phenol, and reducing sugar. The quantitative phytochemical screening of E. chlorantha stem bark and leaf using different solvents, showed the presence of different phytoconstituents in different quantities. Molecular docking results revealed some components of the plant to be more active compared to levofloxacin by inhibiting topoisomerase IV. Jartrorrhizine-1 and canadine-1 present in Enantia chlorantha have docking scores of -2.267 and -1.625 respectively which are greater than that of levofloxacin (-1.557) against Salmonella typhi. For Staphylococcus aureus, Argentine.sdf (-7.373) and Jartrorrhizine.sdf (-4.225) have high docking scores compared to Levofloxacin.sdf (-3.436) as well as Candida albican.The promising evidence for the antimicrobial effects of E. chlorantha against bacterial and fungal isolates in this study especially the stem bark extract showed that Enantia chlorantha is more effective at treating diseases caused by Salmonella typhi and other organisms and therefore can be used as an alternative source of therapeutic agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment Various Concentrations of ZnO-Nanoparticles on Micropropagation for Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Plant

Fayza Ruzayq Al Gethami, Hameda El Sayed Ahmed El Sayed

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 33-42
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2020/v23i630162

Assessment influences various concentrations of ZnO-Nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) on Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Micro-propagation by cotyledonary nodes explants was achieved. We used different concentrations of ZnO-NPs (0.2, 2, 10, 20 mg/l) and used the medium free from ZnO-NPs as control. The results indicated that the presence ZnO-NPs in medium was good effect on germination rate of quinoa seeds at 2 mg/l concentration, and we noticed a density in roots hair and number or length roots of seedling. In addition, the highest responding of explant to ZnO-NPs 93.33, 80.8% were in MS that supplemented 0.0, 2.0 mg/l respectively. Maximum numbers of roots 4.0 were also observed in MS containing 0.0, 2.0 mg/l. Although, there was positive clearly effect on number leaves of shoots, but there was a sudden decline (from 8.43 to 1.0) occurred by increasing ZnO-NPs concentrations from 2.0 to 20.0 mg/L. However, the ZnO-NPs do not effect on length of shoots, where the lengthiest shoot occurred in MS without ZnO-NPs. Regarding rooting shoots, there was significant effect of ZnO-NPs on both percentage of root and root number, where percentage of root reached to 100% in 10.0 mg/l concentration and roots number was 4.80 roots in the same concentration.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Production of Biodiesel from Sewage Sludge Via Soxlet Extraction Using Hexane and Ethyl Acetate in Ratio 2:1 As the Organic Solvent and Transesterification Reaction

W. Ivwurie, B. Okoro

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 43-47
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2020/v23i630163

The Lipid/oil was extracted from reduced dried primary sewage sludge particle using soxhlet extraction method with Hexane and Ethyl Acetate in the ratio 2:1 as the extracting solvent. The extracted oil gave 15.03% percentage yield with density of 0.845 g/ml, pH value of 8.97, specific gravity of 0.845, viscosity of 41.20 mm2/sec, kinematic viscosity of 42.18 mm2/sec. The lipid/oil was brownish black in colour with a pungent smell. The chemical analyses revealed saponification value of 168.00 mgKOH/g, acid value of 5.60 mgKOH/g and free fatty acid value of 2.80%.

The physicochemical analyses of the biodiesel produced gave a c percentage yield of 40% biodiesel, density of 0.845 Kg/ml, pH value of 8.50, specific gravity of 0.845, kinematic viscosity of 4.80 mm2/s, acid value of 0.37 mg KOH/g, and flash point of 150°C, cloud point of 5°C and pour point of -2°C. The results of the physicochemical parameters from the research shows that the feedstock (primary sewage sludge) would be a good source for the production of biodiesel.