Open Access Original Research Article

Potential of Bran from Two Varieties of Rice (Oryza) Spp for Bioethanol Production

Hadiza Musa, Abdullahi Imam Abdullahi, Rabi’a Ibrahim El-Yakub, Ibrahim Alhaji Yerima

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2020/v23i930175

Second generation ethanol is produced from non-food based including waste from food crops, wood chips and agricultural residue. Lignocellulosic and starchy materials in them are converted to fermentable sugars which are further processed to produce bioethanol. Rice bran is an agricultural residue with abundant carbohydrate for bioconversion into ethanol. This study was designed to evaluate the potential of two varieties of rice bran (Sipi and Wita) to produce bioethanol. Compositional analysis of Wita rice bran showed 40% cellulose, 23% hemicellulose and 16% lignin content. Sipi variety contains 35% cellulose, 27% hemicellulose and 13% lignin content. Sodium hydroxide pretreatment was carried out at different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 2% and 3%) and residence time of (15, 30, 60, and 90min). It was observed from the present study, pretreatment of rice bran with 2% NaOH for 90min is considered as effective pretreatment condition for bioethanol production from rice bran. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulosic biomass was carried out for 72h with Saccharomyces cerevisae and Mucor indicus. Fermentation of Wita variety with S.cerevisiae produced highest bioethanol yield of 1.36% while Mucor indicus produced 0.75% bioethanol yield. From the result of these findings, it can be concluded that rice bran could be considered as a promising substrate for the fermentation of second generation ethanol.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Vegetable Contamination with Medically Important Helminths and Protozoans in Calabar, Nigeria

Imalele Edema Enogiomwan, Evbuomwan Owen Ikponmwosa, Osondu-Anyanwu Chinyere, Akpan Blessing Christopher

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 10-16
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2020/v23i930176

Aims: Vegetables are usually exposed to parasitic ova, larvae or oocyst during cultivation, irrigation, storage, transportation or while processing for consumption. Consumption of raw, unwashed and improperly cooked vegetables is considered a risk factor for transmission of intestinal parasites. This study assessed the parasitic contamination of vegetables and also determined factors associated with parasitic contamination of vegetables in selected markets in Calabar, Cross River State.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Markets within Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria between September and October, 2018.

Methodology: A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used for collecting data on factors associated with parasitic contamination of vegetables. 300 vegetable samples were purchased and processed from three different markets in Calabar for examination of parasitic contamination using direct wet mount and zinc sulphate floatation techniques.

Results: 15.7% (47/300) of the vegetables sampled were positive for at least one parasite. The species and stages of parasites detected were larvae of Strongyloides, ova of Trichuris trichiura and Hookworm, and cysts of Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia. Larvae of Strongyloides (11.3%) were the most frequently detected followed by ova of T. trichiura (1.7%) and Hookworm (1.7%) (P = 0.000). Among the five vegetable types sampled, waterleaf (40%) had the highest level of parasitic contamination followed by pumpkin (21.7%). Washing vegetables before display and the means of display were significantly associated with parasitic contamination (P = 0.000).

Conclusion: Prevention of contamination is important in reducing food-borne parasitic infections and can be achieved through improved personal hygiene practices of farmers, vendors and consumers, proper washing of vegetables and improved sanitary conditions especially around markets where these vegetables are sold.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production, Partial Purification and Characterization of Two α-Amylase Isoforms from Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YOP 1/2-2 Isolated from Tchapalo (Côte d’Ivoire)

Ouattara Lacinan, Koné Fankroma Martial Thierry, Djoudy Alix Evrard, N’guessan Kouadio Florent, Dabonné Soumaïla

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 17-30
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2020/v23i930177

Amylases play an important role in biotechnology and find applications in several industrial fields such as pharmaceutical, food, paper, cosmetics and detergents. Thus, it appears necessary to identify new sources of amylase, especially from microbial origin, due to the low energy consumption, cost-effective, high metabolic diversity, rapid cell growth, non-toxic and eco-friendly characteristics. In the present report, we carried out the production and partial purification of α-amylase by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from Tchapalo, a traditional alcoholic beverage of Côte d'Ivoire. Five fungal isolates were screened initially for α-amylase production by using method of wells on Yeast Extract Peptone Dextrose Agar medium, a complete medium for yeast growth. One step DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow was achieved for partial purification of α-amylase obtained. Among yeasts, isolate S. cerevisiae YOP 1/2-2 was able to provoke starch hydrolysis halo of 15.067±0.12 mm on starch agar plate after 48 h of incubation at 30°C. The partial purification of resulting enzyme showed two protein peaks, designated α-amylase 1 (AMY1) and α-amylase 2 (AMY2) with amylolytic activity and specific activities of 1.57-1.58 U/mg protein. Both isoforms (AMY1 and AMY2) were thermostable with optimal activity at 50 and 55°C, respectively, and at pH ranged from 4.5 to 5.3 in 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer. EDTA and Cd2+ strongly inhibited α-amylase activity by 72-75% and 64-65%, respectively, whereas cations Ca2+ and Mn2+ showed 85-99% and 71% increased amylolytic activity, respectively. All these properties show the potential uses of α-amylases from S. cerevisiae in the industrial transformation of starch.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiology of Sandwiches: “Street – Foods” and “Fast – Foods”

Ana Claudia Chesca, Karina Damião Brandão, Carolina Bragine Mangucci

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 31-36
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2020/v23i930178

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the microbiological quality and the presence of pathogens in sandwiches from different snack bars.

Study Design: Foods ready for consumption present a composition which facilitates their deterioration and care from production to consumption ensures its quality. The sandwich is a product of high consumption for its easy acquisition and despite its immediate consumption the sandwich can be considered a food offering risk to the consumers because it is composed of different ingredients that require excessive manipulation.

Place and Duration of Study: Food Microbiology Laboratory - University of Uberaba.

Methodology: For this study, 30 samples of this product were collected from the popular snack bars, street-foods and reputable fast-foods chains in Uberaba trade. The samples were transported to the Laboratory of Food Microbiology of the University of Uberaba in isotherm boxes filled with ice where they were kept under refrigeration until the time of analysis. The microbiological analyses were done according to the methods proposed by Vanderzant and Splittstoesser (1999) and Silva et al. (2007).

Results: From the total of the samples analyzed, 36.6% presented fecal coliforms and Salmonella sp.; 46.6% presented coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and 30% Bacillus cereus. There was no presence of sulphite-reducing clostridium.

Conclusion: The presence of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus indicates the lack of hygiene by food handlers because it is a living microorganism from the nasopharynx and the presence of Salmonella sp. and fecal coliforms indicate poor hygiene and sanitary handling. The improper handling and lack of care in relation to good practices favor the food poisoning.

Open Access Review Article

Probiotics as Agents of Health Improvement, Infection Control and Diseases Treatment: A Review

Francis A. Gbadamosi, Ifunanya R. Akaniro, Morufat O. Olaitan, Theresa O. Nnamocha

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 37-48
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2020/v23i930179

Aims: This review presents valuable information on the contribution of probiotics to the improvement of health and quality of life.

Background: Due to their roles in normal physiology and impacts on human health, probiotics have become a subject of great interests especially in the field of Microbiology. The results of several well-designed clinical studies have shown probiotics to be reliable therapeutic option for the prevention, treatment and control of various health conditions; gastrointestinal diseases, respiratory diseases, neurological disorders, depressive symptoms and autoimmune disorders. Probiotics enhance gastrointestinal tract (GIT) health via vitamins production and supply to the human host and have also been reported to improve immune function thus, inhibiting pathogen invasion and colonization/development. Some show direct/indirect immune modulating capabilities by enhancing mucosal barrier functions, modulating sensory motor functions and delivering antigens. Many probiotic foods possess antioxidant properties that enable them to withstand oxidative stress and strengthen hosts’ anti oxidative defense mechanism.

Findings/Conclusion: The potential application of probiotics in functional foods and pharmaceuticals could demonstrate the improvement of health and quality of life.