Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological and Molecular Identification of Mycobiota Associated with Juniperus monosperma (Engelm.) Sarg. Blight in Mexico

Ma. E. Galindo-Cepeda, A. Sánchez-Arizpe, E. Castro-del Ángel, S. F. Velázquez-Morales, J. L. Arispe-Vázquez

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2020/v23i1030180

The aim of the investigation was to identify the agents associated with blight in Juniperus monosperma at Lirios region, Arteaga, Coahuila. Botanical material was collected at Lirios, Arteaga, and taken to the laboratory. Pathogens were isolated in ADP culture medium and identifying by morphological criteria and molecular using primers ITS1 and ITS4. DNA extraction by the Dellaporta method, the visualization of obtained DNA was performed by electrophoresis on a 2% (p/v) agarose gel. DNA quantification was performed on a NanoDrop 1000 spectrophotometer, and DNA amplification was carried out in the Veriti thermocycler. Obtained sequences were aligned and compared with those available in the GenBank database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), using the BLAST algorithm (Basic Local Aligment Search Tool) to find conserved sequences. Pathogens were inoculated in stems of J. monosperma. The agents associated with blight were Alternaria sp., Aspergillus sp. and Rosellinia sp. and the sequence obtained compared with BLAST coincided only with Alternaria sp. and Aspergillus sp. with the access codes KP027305.1 and MG551283.1, respectively. According to data taken in field, Alternaria sp. behaved as the highest prevalence species and severity associated with blight in J. monosperma, and Rosellinia sp. in laboratory conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Diversity Analysis in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Using RAPD Markers

Md. Abdul Wahab, Shamim Ara Sumi, Absana Islam, M. E. Houqe

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 33-44
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2020/v23i1030182

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) is considered as major textile fiber around the world. This research aimed to analyze the molecular diversity among 9 cotton genotypes collected from Cotton Development Board, Bangladesh using the 7 Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Some total of 18 DNA bands were obtained and among them, 13 were polymorphic bands. The range of DNA amplification varied from 180 to 800 bp. The percentage of polymorphism was about 50.71. Genetic diversity ranged from 0.22 to 0.44 with an average value of 0.34. Nei’s genetic distance ranging from 0.1667 to 0.6667 and most importantly PIC value ranged from 0.18 to 0.35 with an average value of 0.27. The PIC value indicated that most of the studied cotton genotypes were moderately diversified and homogenous as well as no heterozygosity found. A dendrogram indicating the relative genetic similarity of the Bangladeshi cotton genotypes was constructed which followed in two major clusters (A and B) among the studied material. The Cotton Development Board (CDB), Bangladesh committed to working on cotton improvement and this investigation will be helpful for the selection of diversified genotypes in varietal improvement in cotton. The output of this research will be a baseline for future molecular research work on cotton genotypes in Bangladesh.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Mancozeb and Ocimum gratissimum Extract in the Management of Late Blight Disease in Tomato Varieties

Manju Evelyn Bi, Ache NehTeke, Nkwatoh Therese Ncheuveu, Bih Nadine Toh

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 45-53
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2020/v23i1030183

Tomato late blight is an economic disease that causes 100 % yield loss of tomato in Cameroon. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of mancozeb and Ocimum gratissimum extract in managing late blight disease in Nadira and Rio-grande tomato varieties. Seedlings of each tomato variety were planted in replicates of three in a complete randomized block design comprising of three treatments (T1 –Ocimum gratissimum extract (1666.7 g/15 L); T2 –Mancozeb (50 g/15 L); T3 –control. Fifty grams of mancozeb (50g) and 1666.7 g of O. gratissimum extract dissolved and mixed with water in a 15 L knapsack sprayer was applied to control tomato late blight from the onset of blight symptoms, at two days intervals, to control Data for the disease incidence, severity, and yield parameters were collected at weekly intervals for four weeks from plants in the middle of the ridges.  Mancozeb and O. gratissimum extract significantly reduced the disease severity of  Nadira and Rio-grande tomato varieties by 0.2., resulting in a mean fruit number of 18.31 and 16.31 fruits and fruit weight of 1.44 g and 1.13 g. There was no significant difference (p =0.05) between plants sprayed with Mancozeb and O. gratissimum extract. The Nadira variety was resistant to the tomato late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans. Thus biopesticides (O. gratissimum) can be effectively used as alternatives to synthetic fungicides (mancozeb) –which pose risks to human and environmental health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Free Radical Scavenging and Antioxidant Potential of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Diodia sarmentosa on High Fat Fed Wistar Rats

Ndubuisi Tobias I. Ezejiofor, Korie Stephen Chinedumije, Peter Chukwudi

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 54-63
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2020/v23i1030184

Diodia sarmentosa (Sw) commonly known as Zimbabwe flora or Tropical button weed is a straggling or procumbent perennial herb which grows in evergreen forest, riverine vegetation and bush land. It has been used traditionally for the treatment of ulcer, diabetes and other ailments. This study investigated the Free radical scavenging and antioxidant potential of ethanolic leaf extract of Diodia sarmentosa on high fat fed wistar rats. Thirty (30) male wistar rats (150 g-200 g) were divided into five (5) groups: Negative control rats, Positive control rats, Low dose extract rats treated with 250 mg/kg, High dose extract rats treated with 500mg/kg of the extract, and Standard antihyperlipidaemic drug rats treated with 5 mg/kg of Simvastatin. High fat diet was fed to the rats with Ghee and Coconut oil in the ratio of 3:1 for six (6) weeks, and administration of the treatments started from the 3rd week till the 6th week. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant potentials of Diodia sarmentosa was determined by assessing parameters like nitric oxide radical, hydroxyl radical, malondialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and Glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the serum of the test rats. Diodia sarmentosa scavenged free radicals In vitro by inhibiting Nitric oxide and Hydroxyl radicals in a concentration-dependent manner, showing an inhibitory concentration at 50% (IC50) of 907.17 µg/ml ± 45.36 and 2173.44 µg/ml ± 100.11 respectively. Results obtained showed antioxidant enzymes like SOD, GPx and CAT in the serum of the test rats were significantly increased (p<0.05) by both doses of the extract when compared to the PC group and was similar to the standard drug used. GST activity was decreased in the serum by both doses of the extract, this decrease was not significant (p>0.05), while Malondialdehyde level was significantly decreased (p<0.05) by both doses of the extract in the serum of the tests rats. Diodia sarmentosa has antioxidants potentials because of its ability to scavenge free radicals, replenish antioxidant enzymes and reduce lipid peroxidation.

Open Access Review Article

Research Progress on Auricularia delicata

Li Xiao, Muharagi Samwel Jacob, Zhang Bo, Xu Anran

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 8-32
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2020/v23i1030181

Aims: To describe the current status of A. delicata emphasizing on the key parameters; occurrence, classification, molecular studies, nutritional and medicinal benefits, cultivation status, and future development perspective.

Place and Duration of Study: China–Zambia Agricultural demonstration center and Engineering Research Center of Chinese Ministry of Education for Edible and Medicinal Fungi, Jilin Agricultural University, China between July 2019 and June 2020.

Methodology: In this study, various literatures were reviewed for each parameter studied. Findings were deduced from current literatures and discussed.

Results: The screening of bioactive contents of A. delicata revealed the presence of phenolic compounds; chlorogenic, flavonoids, and ethyl acetate, polysaccharides; Chitosan, fibers, β-glucans, mannans, chitin, and melanin. These substances exhibit hepatoprotective effects, antioxidant activities and antimicrobial activities against some microbes like Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli. A. delicata also contains several nutrients namely; protein, vitamin B2, vitamin C, and minerals; Potassium, Calcium, Iron, Magnesium, Zinc, Manganese, that play a vital role in human growth and development. Moreover, its cultivation using various technologies provides an opportunity for high yield production. A. delicata was recently studied at Jilin Agricultural University and domesticated in Heilongjiang province in the northeastern part of China. Due to the similarity of its fruiting body with the structure of the deer tripe, it was assigned a common name as “Deer tripe mushroom”. A. delicata mycelia are capable of growing on several culture media with different nutritional profiles, optimal temperatures and pH values. It is cultivated under tropic temperatures ranging from 25°C-30°C, optimal pH of 6.5, and humidity 80-90%. The commonly used media include; Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), Yeast Extract Agar (YEA) and Malt Extract Agar (MEA).

Conclusion: Therefore the above mentioned significant properties (occurrence, nutritional, medicinal, and cultivation) provide a foundation for further research on the development and utilization of A. delicata.