Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Direct and Indirect Sunlight on Polythene Packs, Sensory, Microbial and Chemical Properties of Sachet Water

Oluwafemi M. Adedire, Ayoade Atere, Wuraola F. Ogundipe, Adekunle O. Farinu

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 25-34
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i130194

The use of Polyethylene or Polyethylene terephthalate (PE/PET) packaging bags for water in Nigeria has great marketing appeal to consumers. However, poor storage and display techniques could subject these products to microbial, physical and chemical deterioration. Sachet water samples commonly taken by staff and students of the Federal College of Agriculture, Ibadan were subjected to different storage conditions for three and five days. Physicochemical parameters of each water sample were determined through equilibrated devices and titrimetric or colorimetric assays, while aerobic bacteria were isolated through pour-plate method in Nutrient Agar. Exposure of sachet water to sunlight had significant effects on their physical, chemical and bacteriological properties. Highest chloride, calcium, alkalinity, hardness, sulphate and total dissolved solids (13.04 mg/L, 123.53 mg/L, 9.08 mg/L, 33.00 mg/L, 27.59 mg/L and 78.33 mg/L, respectively) were recorded in water samples exposed to indirect sunlight for 5 days. Samples stored at room temperature had the best physicochemical properties. Exposure to sunlight reduced the colony forming units of aerobic bacteria in all the water samples. Lowest bacterial count (0.33 × 103 CFU/mL) was observed in water sample exposed to sunlight for 5 days, while the highest count (55.84 CFU/mL) was recorded in samples stored at room temperature. Sensory scores of water samples ranged between 8.33 and 10.00; however, these sensory properties were not significantly affected by their exposure to sunlight for up to 5 days. Sunlight exposure negatively affected the inner surface feel of water packs, sachets appeared slimy after direct and indirect exposure. The physicochemical and microbial changes observed in sunlight-exposed sachet water samples did not influence their organoleptic acceptability. Consequently, in addition to taste and biochemical analysis, the feel of water sachets could be an indication of structural disintegration and water contamination. In order to maintain the integrity of sachet water, products should be hygienically prepared and prevented from sunlight exposure during transportation and storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of a Fraction of the Methanol Extract of the Seeds of Abrus Precatorius on Malondialdehyde and Antioxidant Levels of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Ebele Lauretta Iloanya, Okwesili Fred Chiletugo Nwodo, Obiajulu Christian Ezeigwe, Ogochukwu Prince Alaebo, Nnanyelugo Benneth Enemchukwu, Okwuchukwu Bibian Aziagba, Ifeanyi Sunday Okpani

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 35-51
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i130195

Introduction: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of fraction 2 (F2) of methanol extract of the seeds of Abrus precatorius on malondialdehyde and antioxidant level of alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar albino rats.

Materials and Methods: The methanol extract of the seeds of A. precatorius Linn Fabaceae was fractionated by Sephadex G15. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal administration of alloxan at a dose of 150 mg/kg bodyweight. The phytochemical analysis and the biochemical parameters were investigated using standard diagnostic methods.

Results: Both qualitative and quantitative analysis of F2 revealed the presence of high amounts of alkaloids (2000 ± 80 mg/100 g), flavonoids (158 ± 17.6 mg/100 g) and tannins (258 ± 45 mg/100 g) but low concentration of saponins (18.3 ± 2.43 mg/100 g). The malondialdehyde (MDA) level of all the test groups and the group treated with the standard drug decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared with that of untreated diabetic group. However, the catalase activity in all the test groups significantly increased (p<0.05) while the activity of superoxide dismutase increased significantly (p<0.05) in groups administered 20mg/kg of the fraction and the group pre-treated with 10mg/kg of the fraction compared with the diabetic untreated group. Similarly, the result revealed a significant increase (p<0.05) in non-enzymatic antioxidants such as reduced glutathione and vitamin E of the rats treated with graded doses of F2 while vitamin C showed significant (p<0.05) increase in normal control groups and pre-treated groups compared with the diabetic untreated. Studies on membrane stabilization using hypotonicity-induced red blood cell haemolysis revealed that the F2 of the methanol extract of the seeds of A. precatorius Linn inhibited haemolysis in a dose-dependent manner.

Conclusion: The results obtained from this study revealed that the F2 fraction of the methanol extract of A. precatorius contain important phytochemicals found in the Fraction 2 (F2) however showed improvement in antioxidant defence as well as has a stabilizing effect on the membrane.

Open Access Original Research Article

Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) – Application for Secondary Wastewater Treatment and Biomass Production

K. Dölle, Q. Wang, J. Tong

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 52-61
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i130196

Clean water is one of the most significant challenges for our society. Efficient reuse of effluent water after treatment can becomes an effective solution to the shortage of water resources. The focus of this study is to investigate the use of Eichhornia crassipes plants for post treatment of clarified municipal residential sewage under natural conditions using a small pilot Laboratory Water Hyacinth Clarifier system. Twelve Eichhornia crassipes plants are used to investigate total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen removal during a 20-day study period under various retention rates. The biomass gain of the Eichhornia crassipes plants was 2.4-fold from the initial weight of 1556.5 g to 3676.7 g. Total phosphorous reduction of 10.64%, 11.83%, 20.93%, 41.66%, 67.12%, and 40.13% for the 1.5, 9.0, 12.0, 24.0, 48.0 h, and 120.0-hour retention times respectively. Ammonia nitrogen removal was between 35.71%, 33.33% for the 1.50 and 9.0-hour retention time and 42.85% for the 12.0 and 24.0-hour retention time. A reduction of 71.43% resulted for the 48.0-hour retention time and an 85.71% reduction for the 120.0-hour retention time. Overall retention time of 24.0 h, 48.0 h and 120 h tend to give best removal rates for both total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen removal. Factors such as climate, contaminant concentration, retention rate, and weather conditions play an important role for the application of Eichhornia crassipes in a tertiary treatment sequence of MRS.

Open Access Review Article

The Role of Green Biotechnology through Genetic Engineering for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation, and for Food Security: Current Challenges and Future Perspectives

Aynias Seid, Berhanu Andualem

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i130192

Climatic change has a great challenge to almost all human activities over the years. Continuous increase in climate change could have a negative effect on global food security. In order to feed the current ever-increasing world population, there is a need to double the rate of agricultural productivity. Biotechnology through genetic modification can contribute their incredible roles positively towards reducing vulnerability of natural and human systems to climate change effects including greenhouse gas reduction, and increase agricultural production on less land in helping to meet future food by the adoption of GM-crop traits such as herbicide-tolerant crops, drought-tolerant crops, insect-resistant crops, and high-yielding transgenic crops which counters the negative effects of climate change. It is important that bio-safety regulatory systems to be established and good policies formulated on agricultural development with the use of sustainable agricultural biotechnology with public-private partnership to effectively utilize modern biotechnology to enhance food security and mitigate climatic changes. Currently, modern biotechnology has encountered enormous public debates related to risks and benefits of genetically modified organisms in terms of human health, environment, socio-economic, and ethical and cultural concern issues. However, safe application of modern agricultural biotechnologies is significantly contributing to the current and future climate change adaptation and mitigation efforts, and greatly improve agricultural productivity and food security to ensure food availability or access to food for all and efficient utilization of food resources globally. This will ensure that the GM-crops have no adverse effect on living organisms and the environmentally safe. Therefore, the aim of this review paper was to assessed the current challenges and future perspectives of biotechnology through genetic modification for climate change adaptation and mitigation, and food security.

Open Access Review Article

The Coronavirus Disease of 2019: Prevention, Management and Treatment Strategies

Nkechi E. Egbe, Chukwu C. Onyedikachi, Ashiru M. Dantata, Surajo Jamaliddeen, Amaka M. Awanye

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 12-24
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i130193

The recent COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV2) has taken the world by surprise since its outbreak in 2019, and as on February 2021, the world had experienced a total of 107,643,141 (one hundred and seven million, six hundred and forty-three thousand, one hundred and forty-one) confirmed infection cases and 2,358,244 (two million, three hundred and fifty-eight thousand, two hundred and forty-four) deaths world-wide. This virus, although less lethal than the previous human coronaviruses (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV), is reported highly infectious and mutable. This has led to a concerted effort by numerous governments and private organisations to try and halt the spread of the virus through the development of highly effective therapeutic drugs or prophylactic therapy. There are various drugs, vaccines and other forms of therapies currently being developed all over the world, with some at various clinical trial stages, with only one (Remdesivir) being fully approved treatment of the COVID-19 disease. The latest breakthrough with Dexamethasone has currently revealed the efficacy of the drug in treating critically ill and even mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients, and this has led to the approval of the drug by the United Kingdom and World Health Organization (WHO). The recent development of a protective SARS-CoV-2 vaccine has created hope for life and restoration of normalcy.