Open Access Original Research Article

Compositional Assessment of Selected Plant-based Substrates for Biogas Production

Ugwu Tochukwu Nicholas, Nwachukwu Augusta Anuli, Ogbulie Toochukwu Ekwutosi, Anyalogbu Ernest Anayochukwu

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i330202

Enormous quantities of plant biomass are generated annually, as agricultural wastes. Lignocellulose is the main structural constituent of plants and represents the primary source of renewable organic matter on earth. This study was carried out to evaluate the lignocellulose composition, proximate and selected physicochemical characteristics of some selected plant-based substrates for biogas production. The substrates were: Corn cobs, Rice straw and Water hyacinth (Eichhorniacrassipes). They were collected, cut, dried for 72 hours at 320C, milled and subjected to hemicellulose, lignin and cellulose compositional analyses, using the standard Sox let extraction method. Standard methods were employed for proximate and physicochemical analyses. Results of the compositional evaluation showed that corn cob has the highest percentages of cellulose (42.0%), while extractives content was least (2.18%) in Rice straw. For the proximate analysis, the percentage carbohydrates (24.22) and ash (24.40) were highest in rice straw, while fat content  had the least values of 0.65%  recorded in corn cobs. The results of the physicochemical analysis showed that Rice straw had the highest values of TS (94.55%) and phosphorus (928.57mg/kg), Corn cob had the highest TVS (85.53%) and organic carbon (50.46%) while Water hyacinth recorded the highest Nitrogen content (2.33%). They are good substrates for energy generation, and lignocellulosic biomass holds a huge potential to meet the current energy demand of the modern world. The knowledge of the lignocellulosic composition of the biomass would help in choosing appropriate pretreatment measures to achieve better hydrolysis which would translate to higher biogas yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Steam Blanching on Carotenoids, Phenolic Compounds Content and Antioxidant Activity of Dried Pumpkin’s Pulp (Cucurbita moschata) Farmed with Three Biological Fertilizers

Boudjeka Guemkam Vanessa, Djeukeu Asongni William, Loé-Etame Gisèle, Dongho Dongmo Fabrice Fabien, Carmen Bolea, Nicoleta Stanciuc, Tchiaze Ifoue Alice, Gabriela Iordachescu, Gouado Inocent

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 7-18
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i330203

Aims: This study aims to assess the effect of steam blanching on the phytochemical composition and the antioxidant properties of Cucurbita moschata pulp, obtained with the use of three biological fertilizers. 

Study Design: The study was done on five samples of pumpkin pulp grown in different conditions. All the samples were evaluated before and after steam blanching treatment followed by hot                    air drying. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with three replications. 

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Biochemistry-University of Douala, Cameroon. The duration of study was seven months, from March to September 2018.

Methodology: Pumpkin were grown in May-September 2018 using the following fertilizers: ash at 10kg/25m2; bovine compost at 62.5 kg/25m2; ash + bovine compost (1:1). Besides negative control without fertilizers and positive control represented by NPK (20-10-10) at 2 kg/25m2 have been done. After harvesting, carotenoids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids contents, and antioxidant activities were determined using standard methods before and after a steam blanching treatment followed by hot air drying process. 

Results: Pumpkin pulp fertilized with ash, after a steam blanching treatment had the highest contents of total carotenoids, β-carotene, lycopene respectively of 696.03 ± 7.57; 584.86 ± 15.50 and 115.00 ± 1.25 mg/100g of edible portion and the lowest percentages of loss of these bioactive compounds. Pumpkin pulp fertilized with bovine compost and ash showed the lowest rates of loss of total phenolic compounds, respectively 0.62% and 4.25%, while those fertilized with the positive control (NPK) showed the highest rate of loss of total phenolic compounds (60%). Steam blanching treatment had a significant impact on phytonutrient contents and total phenolic compounds extracted from dried pumpkin pulp exert greater antioxidant activity. 

Conclusion: Pumpkin pulp fertilized with ash provides the highest carotenoids content after steam blanching treatment and this treatment increases the antioxidant activity and probably the shelf life of dried pumpkin pulp.

Open Access Original Research Article

Endozoochory and Germination of Selected Ingested Seeds by Malayan Box Turtles (Cuoraamboinensis) from Laguna Province, Philippines

Kliff Eldry G. Ibañez, Larry V. Padilla

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 19-27
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i330204

Aims: Malayan box turtles’ (Cuoraamboinensis) ecological niche are essential in an ecosystem but are often overlooked. This study investigated the germination of selected seeds that passed through the gut of Malayan box turtles to determine its role in promoting seed dispersal and aiding seed germination.

Study Design:Experimental approach.

Place and Duration of Study:Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila (University of the City of Manila) and Dasmarinas, Cavite between June 2016 to March 2017.

Methodology: The seeds that passed through the turtle’s gut (Gut Passed Seeds) and seeds that did not pass through its gut (Mechanically Extracted Seeds) underwent comparative germination test. The Germination Rate (GR) and Percent Germination (%GR) of each group were determined in the study.Seed shadowing was also conducted to evaluate the turtle’s seed dispersal capacity (endozoochory).

Results: Results showed that after gut passage, seed GR and %GR were enhanced on Lycopersiconesculentum, Carica papaya, Psidiumguajava, and Muntingiacalabura. However, Germination Rate and Percent Germination of Passifloraquadrangularis decreased after gut passage. Statistical analyses revealed that there is a significant difference in the GR and %G of M. calabura and %G of L. esculentum, and P. quadrangularis. Thread trailing method showed that C. amboinensis can disperse seeds at a distance of 24.8 to 52.8 meters.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates the important role of C. amboinensis in the ecosystem through its contribution to plant seed germination and dispersal.It showed that Malayan box turtles are not only seed dispersal agents but are also important in the germination of seeds that they have ingested and defecated.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Antacid Properties of Cameroonian Clay (MY41g) and its Potential Use in Anti-ulcer Triple Therapy Regimen Formulated with Eremomastax speciosa Extract

Joseph Fleurie Emakoua, Mesmine Kuissu Teukam Mimosette, André Perfusion Amang, Mbida Désirée Essama, Otto Gustave Lebeau Ndji, Christophe Mezui, Enow-Orock George Enonchong, Paul Vernyuy Tan

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 28-47
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i330205

Aims: The antisecretory, antibacterial on Helicobacter, and antacid properties of Eremomastax speciosa (E. speciosa) and MY41g clay respectively, led us to evaluate the potential use of this clay in the anti-ulcer tri-therapy formulated with Eremomastax speciosa.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Biology & Physiology (Animal Physiology Laboratory), Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, between August 2020 and February 2021.  

Materials and Methods: In vitro antacid were evaluated by studying: Fordtran's method, and the influence of temperature on the pH values. In vivo activity was studied on chronic gastric ulcers induced by injection of 0.05 ml of acetic acid (30%) into the stomach wall. Rats were treated daily for 10 days after ulcer induction with a combination of E. speciosa and MY41g (ESMY) ; (ESMY 100+250 and 200+250 mg/kg). The model of "unhealed" gastric ulcers was also used: from day 5 to day 18 of experimentation, rats were given ESMY orally concomitantly with indomethacin (1 mg/kg/day) subcutaneously. Ulcer index, percentage of healing, mucus secretion, gastric acidity, histological, hematological, and oxidative stress parameters were evaluated.

Results: ESMY showed good neutralizing capacity in vitro in Fordtran’s method. Treatment with ESMY accelerated the spontaneous healing of chronic gastric ulcers (93.82-96.14%). However, administration of indomethacin did not induce significant variations in the percentage of healing (90.73-94.60%). For both ulcer models performed, ulcer healing was accompanied by a significant (P = 0.001) increase in mucus mass at 200/250 mg/kg. ESMY increased antioxidant activity, decreased gastric acidity, lipid peroxidation, and maintained hematological balance.

Conclusion: In addition to its buffering properties, the healing mechanism of ESMY includes reduced gastric acidity, enhanced mucus production, re-epithelialization of gastric mucosa, improvement of hematological and antioxidant status. ESMY can be used in traditional medicine, as a therapeutic regimen against gastric ulcers.  

Open Access Original Research Article

The Phytochemical Constituents, Hypoglycemic, and Antioxidant Activities of Senna occidentalis (L.) Ethanolic Leaf Extract in High Sucrose Diet Fed Drosophila melanogaster

Okoye Clifford Tochukwu, Ogbonna Abigail, Etuh Monday Alexander, Sani Peter Ugbedeojo

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 48-63
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i330206

Aim: This study was aimed at evaluating the phytochemical constituents,hypoglycemic, and antioxidant activities of Senna occidentalis ethanolic leaf extract in diabetic Drosophila melanogaster with emphasis on survival, phytochemical, biochemical and fecundity assays as well as locomotor activities.

Methodology:S. occidentalisleaves was collected and prepared for extraction using 70% ethanol as solvent. The extract was subjected to phytochemical screening and the lethal dose(LD50) was carried out on D. melanogasterfor 7 days. Survival study was conducted by treating fruit flies with different concentration of the extracts for 28 days. Hyperglycemia was induced by feeding the flies with food containing 30% of sucrose for 10 days, and thereafter treated with different concentration of the extract and metformin (positive control) for 7 days.Diabetic flies were used for the negative geotaxis and fecundity assays. The homogenates of flies from the different groups of the treatment and control were prepared and used to quantify the glucose content and the antioxidant activities which included the thiol content, glutathione-s-transferase and catalase activities.

Results: The phytochemical screening revealed the presence 8 different phytochemicals. The LD50 was determined to be 277.8 mg/10 g fly food of S. occidentalis. Supplementation with S. occidentalis ethanolic extracts showed a non-significant increase (P> 0.05) in the survival of D melanogaster when compared to the baseline group.Diabetic flies treated withthe extract showed a dose-dependent decrease in serum glucose which was significant (P< 0.05) at 100 mg when compared to the negative control group(untreated). Negative geotaxis, fecundity and catalase activitiesof treated fliesshowed no significant difference (P> 0.05) when compared toflies in the negative control group. S. occidentalis ethanolic leaf extract significantly elevated (P< 0.05) the total thiol content and glutathione-s-transferase activities at certain concentration in a non-linear manner.

Conclusion: From the findings, S. occidentalis ethanolic leaf extract contained several phytochemicals and it is relatively safe; possessing hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties when administered to diabeticD. melanogaster.