Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Salmonella Species

A. R. Alhassan, C. K. S. Saba, S. W. Kpordze

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i430207

Aim: This research was carried out to determine the prevalence of Salmonella species from smoked fish sold in the three major markets in Tamale Metropolis and examined the isolates resistance patterns to various antibiotics. 

Study Design: The study was in two parts which include administering questionnaires and collecting samples. The second part was the laboratory analysis to detect Salmonella species from the collected samples.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Spanish laboratory (microbiology section) of the Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Biosciences, of the University for Development Studies.

Methodology: A total of one hundred samples were examined. The samples were enriched on buffered peptone water and inoculated on Modified Semi-Solid Rappaport Vassiliadis. Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate was used to identify the bacteria, and Simons Citrate agar was used for the biochemical test. The antibiotic test was done by using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion                           test.

Results: After the laboratory analysis, 67 (67%) out of the 100 samples were confirmed to be positive for Salmonella species of which Cut fish (11.9%), Redfish (11.9%), Mudfish (11.9%), and Chale fish (11.9%) recorded the highest contamination, and among the three markets, Central market had the highest fish contamination. The resistance patterns of the isolates to the various antibiotics used were; Ciprofloxacin (2.98%), Ceftriaxone (34.32%), Ampicillin (83.58%), Doxycycline (88.05%), Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid (91.04%), and Oxytetracycline (92.53%).

Conclusion: This study revealed that smoked fish sold in the Tamale Metropolis contained Salmonella positive that can cause food poisoning and other gastrointestinal problems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicity of Azadirachta indica Hydroethanolic Leaf Extract in Adult Drosophila melanogaster (Harwich Strain)

Okoye Clifford Tochukwu, Etuh Monday Alexander, Jacob Mekidani Salu

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 12-23
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i430208

Aim: This study is aimed at evaluating the toxic effect of A. indica hydroethanolic leaf extracts in D. melanogaster (fruit flies) by carrying out a survival study, locomotor, fecundity and biochemical assays.

Place of study: This study was carried out in the Drosophila laboratory of Africa Centre of Excellence in Phytomedicine Research and Development (ACEPRD), University of Jos.

Methods: Extraction of A. indica extract was carried using hydroethanolic solvent (70:30 v/v ethanol: water). Flies were treated with 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, 250 mg, 500 mg and 5000 mg A. indica hydroethanolic leaf extracts per 10 g fly food for 7 days, to determine the lethal concentration (LC50). The survival assay was carried out for 28 days by treating flies with 5 mg, 10 mg, and 25 mg/10 g fly food of the extract. Young flies were treated with several concentrations of the extract for 7 days, to determine the effect of the extract on the fecundity and locomotion. Thereafter, flies exposed to the extracts for 7 days were immobilized, weighed, homogenized, and centrifuged. The supernatant was used to assay for acetylcholinesterase and catalase activities. The experiment was replicated 3 times and data was presented as mean ± SEM with statistical value at “P < 0.05” considered significant.

Results: The percentage yield was calculated to be 12.7 % and the phytochemicals present in A. indica hydroethanolic leaf extract included alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids, phenols, and glycosides. The LC50 was determined to be 1499 mg/10 g diet and the result showed a dose-dependent significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the survival of the flies, when compared to the control group. Further results showed a non-significant decrease (P > 0.05) in the fecundity, as well as the locomotor, acetylcholinesterase, and catalase activities of the flies, compared to the control.

Conclusion: This study concludes that A. indica hydroethanolic leaf extract, at certain concentrations, may not be safe for consumption as it showed some level of toxicity in D. melanogaster.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fungi Diversity on Some Fruits and Biological Control using Two Plants Extracts

Paul Ndip Besong, Tonjock Rosemary Kinge

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 24-38
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i430209

Fruits play an essential role in human nutrition by contributing the necessary growth factors like essential minerals and vitamins in human daily diet maintaining a good and normal health. But rot diseases caused by fungi cause severe losses of agricultural and horticultural crops every year. This work aimed to study fungi diversity on some fruits and carry out biological control using two plant extracts. A total of 17 infected fruit samples were collected from two local markets, small pieces of infected parts were inoculated on prepared plates of Potato Dextrose Agar. Incubation was done for 7 days and pure cultures were made, and pure isolated fungi were identified according to the recommended references. Ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and Moringa oleifera were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activities on Aspergillus and Fusarium species isolated from spoilt tomatoes and banana using the Agar Dilution Method. Eleven different fungi species comprising nine genera were isolated from the 17 fruits collected from the Nkwen and main markets of Bamenda. The fungi were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium digitatum, Mucor sp, Fusarium sp, Mucor racemosus, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum sp, Nodulisporium sp, Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus flavus. There was some diversity in isolation frequency of the fungi from the fruits. Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium were the most common genera that colonized the fruits, with Aspergillus sp. found to be the most dominant fungi responsible for extensive damage of fruits. Ocimum gratissimum and Moringa oleifera leaf extracts had inhibitory activities on the test fungi. The diversity of the fungi identified in this study could be regarded as the most common causes of post-harvest deterioration of fruits. The findings of this study bring further evidence that Moringa oleifera and Ocimum gratissimum leaves extracts have the potential of becoming powerful and safe alternative means of fungi control on fruits instead of the harmful, expensive, environmentally unfriendly chemical fungicides.

Open Access Original Research Article

Improved Biogas Production from Corn Stalks, Pig Manure and Eggshell

U. A. Adekola, I. Eiroboyi, Y. Yerima, T. E. B. Akinmoji, L. O. Uti

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 39-47
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i430210

The need for an environmentally friendly energy source in the world has led to major diversification in renewable energy. Biogas provides a renewable energy source that will replace fossil fuel inevitably. The experiment was carried out using a self-designed laboratory-scale anaerobic biogas digester. The study was carried out at room temperature from 25 - 31°C for 20 days using corn stalk as the main substrate while Pig manure and eggshell were used as co-substrates. The findings showed that the biogas produced from the sample containing a blend of corn stalk, Pig manure, and eggshell resulted in higher biogas volume than the sample containing corn stalk and eggshell, corn stalk, and pig manure as well as the sample containing only corn stalk. This implies that the use of the corn stalk blend is a source of renewable energy. Thus, ensuring the sustainability of biogas production in the future.

Open Access Review Article

Cytotoxicity and Bioremediation of Heavy Metals by Highly Resistant Marine Bacteria

Enas N. Danial, Walaa A Majrashi, Ahlam O. Bin Afif, Ebtehal S Alamri, Entesar M. Alhatimi, Nowayer J. Alghamdi

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 48-72
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i430211

Environmental pollution of heavy metals is increasingly becoming a problem and has become of great concern due to the adverse effects it is causing around the world. These inorganic pollutants are being discarded in our waters, soils and into the atmosphere due to the rapidly growing agriculture and metal industries, improper waste disposal, fertilizers, and pesticides. Pollution in industrial areas is a serious environmental concern. Wastewater containing biotoxic substances of heavy metals in the ecosystem is one of the most important environmental and health challenges in our society. Hence, there is a growing need for the development of novel, efficient, eco-friendly, and cost-effective approach for the remediation of inorganic metals (Cr, Hg, Cd, and Pb) released into the environment and to safeguard the ecosystem. Mercury (Hg), Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) are known to cause damage to living organisms, including human beings. In this regard, recent advances in microbes-base heavy metal have propelled bioremediation as a prospective alternative to conventional techniques. Heavy metals are nonbiodegradable and could be toxic to microbes. Several microorganisms have evolved to develop detoxification mechanisms to counter the toxic effects of these inorganic metals. Several marine bacteria highly resistant and capable of growing at higher concentrations of Hg, Cr, Cd and Pb and to evaluate their potential to detoxify. Their detoxification efficiency for Hg, Cr, Cd and Pb indicates good potential for application in bioremediation of toxic heavy metals.