Open Access Short Research Article

Antibiotic Resistant Profile of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Swine and Poultry Faeces in Umuahia Metropolis

R. C. Osaro-Matthew, O. G. Nweke

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 21-25
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i530214

Aim: This study’s aim was to determine the antibiotics resistant profile of lactic acid bacteria isolated from poultry and swine faeces.

Study design: Faecal samples from swine and birds were randomly collected from livestock and poultry farms located in Umuahia metropolis, Abia State.

Place and duration of study: Department of microbiology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, between January 2019 to August 2019.

Methodology: A total of 12 faecal samples, 6 each from swines and birds were examined for the presence of lactic acid bacteria using  Deman Rogosa Sharpe agar supplemented with 0.3% CaCO3 (w/v). Isolates were identified based on their physiological and biochemical characteristics. Antibiotic susceptibility was carried out using disk diffusion method.

Results: Of the 12 faecal samples examined, all were positive for lactic acid bacteria, with counts ranging from 1.74 – 2.36 x 106 in swine and 1.52 – 2.08 x 106 in birds. Total of 14 strains that belong to three genera; Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus were isolated, genus Lactobacillus occurred highest 8(57.1%). The isolates showed multidrug resistance and exhibited high rate of resistance to Augmentin (100%), Ceftazidime (100%), Cefotaxime (92.9%), Erythromycin (85.7%), Ceftriaxone (71.4%) and Azithromycin (71.4%).

Conclusion: The antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolated lactic acid bacteria is a clear indication that most animal farmers are misusing antibiotics. Therefore, animal farmers should be advised on antibiotic application safety measures.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vivo Antiplasmodial Activity of Sulfadoxine/Pyrimethamine/Doxycycline on Plasmodium berghei Infected Mice

Udeme Owunari Georgewill, Elias Adikwu

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i530212

The search for newer antimalarial drug combinations is on the front burner due to rising Plasmodium resistance to some currently used antimalarial drugs. This study examined the antiplasmodial activity of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine/doxycycline (S/P/D) on mice infected with Plasmodium berghei (P. berghei). Swiss albino mice (25-30 g) inoculated with P. bergei (1x107) were treated with D (2.2 mg/kg), S/P (21.4/10.7 mg/kg), and S/P/D for 4 days. The positive and negative controls were treated with normal saline (0.2 ml) and chloroquine (CQ) (10 mg/kg) for 4 days, respectively. After treatment, blood samples were collected and assessed for parasitemia levels and biochemical parameters. The mice were observed for mean survival time (MST). D, S/P, S/P/D and CQ significantly decreased parasitemia in the curative, prophylactic and suppressive tests at p<0.05; p<0.01, p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively when compared to negative control. In the curative study, 55.9%, 65.1%, and 81.7% parasitemia inhibitions were produced by D, S/P and S/P/D, respectively whereas CQ produced 75.6 % parasitemia inhibition. D, S/P and S/P/D significantly prolonged MST at p<0.05, p<0.01 and p<0.001 respectively when compared to negative control. Altered serum biochemical markers in  P. berghei infected mice were marked by  significantly (p<0.001) decreased  packed cell volume, red blood cells, hemoglobin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with  significantly (p<0.001) increased cholesterol, white blood cells, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels when compared to control. However, D, S/P and S/P/D significantly restored the aforementioned markers at p<0.05, p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively when compared to negative control. S/P/D may be used as an antimalarial drug.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Hormonal Regime and Explant Type on Cell Clusters Expression of Maize Mutants (Zea Mays L) Derived from Gamma Irradiated Seeds of Ev8728 variety

Kanga Ahou Nadia, Ayolié Koutoua, Yao Kouakou François Konan, Kassi Amalan Angèle, Soro Dogniméton, Kouakou Tano Hilaire, Kouadio Yatty Justin

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 9-20
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i530213

Maize (Zea mays L.) seeds irradiated with gamma or not from the fourth self-fertilisation cycle were selected for tissue culture. For this purpose, MS medium supplemented with 30 g.L-1 sucrose, 100 mg.L-1 casein hydrolysate, 100 mg.L-1 myo-inositol and 6 g.L-1 agar was used. For this purpose, three auxins type (2.4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2.4-D), 2-methoxy-3.6-dichlorobenzoic acid (Dicamba) and Indole-3-Acetic Acid (AIA)) and explants (root, epicotyl and leaf) were tested. The results showed that 2.4-D more precisely at 3.5 mg.L-1 was the best auxin for callus induction in the different maize mutants studied. The induction rate, dry matter weight and water content of callus varied according to the type, age, explant position and the maize mutants studied (control, 200 and 300 grays). Thus, the 7-day root and more precisely its basal part was better for callogenesis. In addition, mutants of the 200 grays dose were more expressive in the ability to induce callus in EV8728maize variety.

Open Access Original Research Article

Changes in the Population of Schizosaccharomyces japonicus in Carissa edulis Vahl (Simple-spined Carissa) Juice Treated with Extracts of Citrus aurantifolia Christm. (lime) and Citrus limon Burm F. (lemon) Peels as Natural Preservatives during Storage

Ugwu Eugene Ifeanyi, Nyam Mary A., Ogbonna Abigail I.

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 26-35
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i530215

Aim: This study was aimed at evaluating the changes in the population of Schizosaccharomyces japonicus in locally produced simple-spine Carissa juice and the effects of lemon peel, lime peel and combination of lime and lemon peels extract as preservatives on the juice samples.

Methodology: Fruit juice produced was treated with different concentrations of citrus peels extracts (lemon, lime and lime+lemon) and their shelf lives were determined at room temperature for 30 days. The effects of the different preservatives on the pH of the juices were assessed and the Yeast count of the juice samples treated with the various concentrations of the citrus peels and the untreated samples were assessed using standard microbiological methods. The sugar fermentation and assimilation test of the isolate was also determined.

Results: Yeast population increased in the juice samples that were without treatments (control) from 5.6×103±200 to 1.52×104±200 cfuml-1 indicating significant increase (p≥0.05). Treated juice samples showed significant decrease (p≤0.05) in yeast population in the order of 300>200>100 mg/ml of the natural preservatives. Juice samples treated with highest concentration (300 mg/ml) of combined lime+lemon peels recorded the least colony forming units of 2.0×103±100 ml-1 during the storage period. This showed that the highest concentration (300 mg/ml) of combined lime+lemon peels had more effects on yeast load reduction in the Carissa juice. The results of the preservative properties of the citrus peels revealed the combined preservative (lime+lemon) as the best among the individual preservatives of lime and lemon. The sugar fermentation and assimilation tests showed that Schizosaccharomyces japonicus is a good fermenter of most sugars and can also assimilate sugars for its growth. The pH (3.40±0.01 and 4.09±0.01) of the treated fruit juices were within the acidic ranges that support the growth of yeast cells in culture.

Conclusion: From the findings, organic extracts of citrus peels can be used to extend the shelf-life of Carissa juice for up to three weeks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between the Intensity of Latex Harvesting and the Tapping Panel Dryness Expression of Clone GT 1 of Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg in South-East Côte d'Ivoire

Obouayeba Samuel, Konan Djezou, Diarrassouba Moussa, Lehi Malidy Irénné, Koffi Antoine, Ballo Esperence Kouadio, Adou Bini Yao Christophe, Essehi Jean Lopez

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 36-45
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i530216

Tapping panel dryness is an important limiting factor in rubber productivity of Hevea brasiliensis. In order to assess the sensitivity to this syndrome, the effect of two intensive latex harvesting technologies on moderately metabolized GT1 clone, has been studied in the South-Eastern region of Côte d'Ivoire. The rubber trees were planted according to the experimental mono-tree device, "One tree one plot design" a tree constituting a repetition, and 31 trees per treatment, selected on circumference and health status criteria. The parameters measured were rubber production, circumference increase, physiological profile and tapping panel dryness sensitivity. The results showed that induction of tapping panel dryness in latex harvesting system, S/2 d/3 6d/7 ET 10 % Pa 1 (1) 1/ w) was significantly low (0.18 ± 0,22 %) than that of the control (S d/1 6d/7 unstimulated, 1.43 ± 1.45 %). Productivity of this particular system was also good (62 ± 16.32 g.a-1.s-1) and it especially has less stress that can cause physiological fatigue, or even the notch dry. Otherwise, Rubber production, radial vegetative growth, physiological parameters of the latex and the tapping panel dryness rate were influenced by the two treatments applied to GT 1. In addition, the medium and high sucrose contents (16.5 ± 3.01%) and thiol group (0.51 ± 0.13 mmol.l-1) of the latex in the treatment (S/2 d/3 6d/7 ET 10% Pa 1 (1) 1 / w), were instrumental in the response to this stimulation. The sensitivity to the tapping panel dryness is in very close linear relation with the harvest intensity of the latex to which the GT 1 clone has been subjected. These results corroborate and confirm the moderate sensitivity to the tapping panel dryness of GT 1 clone.