Open Access Original Research Article

The Antimicrobial, Anti Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of the Rhizome Extract of Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric)

Ogbonna Abigail Ify, Adejube Glory Raphael, Okoye Clifford Tochukwu, Ogbonna Ugoy Sonia Amarachi, Njoku Andrew Ikechukwu, Madu Josephine Madukaihe, Yakubu Thomas, Ogbonna Chike Innocent

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i630217

Aim: This study aimed at investigating the anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties of rhizome extracts of Curcuma longa (Turmeric).

Methodology: Extraction of biochemical constituents of the 150 g of the turmeric rhizomes powder was carried out successively using hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water as solvents. The antimicrobial potentials of the different fractions of the extract were tested on clinical bacterial including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using agar well diffusion method at concentrations of 400 mg/ml, 200 mg/ml, 100 mg/ml, 50 mg/ml, and 25 mg/ml. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were determined using agar dilution technique. For the anti-inflammatory effects of the extract of C. longa, albino rats were treated with methanolic extract (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight) and diclofenac as control, after which they were injected with egg albumin on the right hind paw to induce inflammation. The swelling degree of the injected paw was measured. The analgesic effect of C. longa methanolic extract on hot plate-induced pain was also investigated in albino rats, and the Index of response latency was recorded.

Results: The biochemical assay showed that C. longa extract contained Alkaloids, Saponins, Tannins, Flavonoids, Carbohydrate, Steroids, Terpenes, Anthraquinone, and Cardiac Glycosides, with Methanol and aqueous extracts having the most biochemical constituents. The antibacterial susceptibility screening showed that K.pneumonia was the most susceptible organism, having the highest zone of inhibition of 18 mm for ethyl acetate extract at the concentration of 400 mg/ml. This was followed by S. pneumonia, S.aureus and P. aeruginosa with inhibition zone of 13, 12 and 10 mm respectively. The MIC for K.pneumonia and S.aureus were both 200 mg/ml, while that of P. aeruginosa and S. pneumonia were both 400 mg/ml. The paw size of rats treated with increasing doses of the extract and diclofenac significantly decreased with time. The concentration of 250 mg/kg had the lowest paw volume of 4.39±0.36mm while 1000 mg/kg recorded 5.18±0.28 as the highest, at 180 minute.

Conclusion: Based on the result obtained, it can be concluded that Curcuma longa Rhizome extract possess anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seedling Growth of Tectona grandis using Different Potting Mixture

G. E. Omokhua, C. Fredrick, C. N. Okakpu

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 17-24
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i630218

Aims: This study evaluated the influence of 11 potting media compositions on seedling growth and development of Tectona grandis.

Study Design: The experiment was set up in a completely randomized design involving ten replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management Nursery, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, between April 2019 and April 2020.

Methodology: Ten (10) seedlings per sowing media including topsoil, topsoil and cow dung (2:1, 3:1), topsoil and poultry dung (2:1, 3:1), topsoil and pig dung (2.1, 3:1), topsoil and sawdust (2.1, 3:1), topsoil and mushroom substrate (2.1, 3:1) were selected and transplanted into polybags. Growth parameters (seedling height, root collar diameter, leaf number and biomass (shoot dry weight (SDW), root dry weight (RDW) and total dry weight (TDW)) were determined and subjected to analysis of variance.

Results: Seedlings of T. grandis displayed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in height, root collar diameter, leaf number and biomass. Among treatments, tallest seedlings were observed in mixture of topsoil and poultry dung (3:1), at months 1 to 3 and in mixture of topsoil and cow dung (3:1) at months 4 and 5, highest root collar diameter was observed in mixture of topsoil and poultry dung (3:1) and highest leaf number was recorded in mixture of topsoil and poultry dung (2:1 and 3:1) and topsoil and cow dung (2:1 and 3:1) at months 1 to 5. The highest SDW was evident in mixture of topsoil and poultry dung (2:1) while highest RDW and TDW were observed in mixture of topsoil and cow dung (3:1). Lowest height, diameter, leaf number and biomass were recorded in topsoil (control) at months 1 to 5.

Conclusion: The results revealed that among the tested mixtures, topsoil and poultry dung and topsoil and cow dung mixtures were the best for seedlings growth of T. grandis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Consuming Different Varieties of Bambara Nut (Vigna subterranea) Seeds on Liver and Kidney of Diabetic and Non-diabetic Subject

Abdulrashid Mohammed, Daniel Hassan Mhya

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 25-35
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i630219

Aims: Bambara nut seeds have been reported as a good source of food with high fiber and nutritional contents, and is consumed by persons with diabetes as one of the dietary therapy. However, the plant seeds are of different varieties and whether they might have vary biological effects on renal and liver functions is not fully known. This has prompted the study to evaluate effects of consuming different varieties of Bambara Nut seeds on liver and kidney of both diabetic and non-diabetic rats.

Methodology: Four Bambara nut seeds varieties were dehulled and each heated at 60oC, cooled then grounded into flour using a mechanical grinder. The flours were used to formulate feeds which were given to different diabetic and non-diabetic rats’ groups as follows; group A (ALK01 feed), group B (ALK02 feed), group C (ALK03 feed), group D (ALK04 feed), group E (Basal feed), and group F (Normal animal’s feed). The animals were fed for 28 days then sacrifice, blood collected and serum separated and used for hepatic and renal parameters analysis.

Results: The results of the study showed decrease levels of serum total protein and albumin, and elevation of AST and ALT activities as well as urea and creatinine concentrations in diabetic rats fed basal and normal diets, whereas, reverse in these parameters were recorded from diabetic rats fed varieties of Bambara nut seeds’ formulated feeds. 

Conclusion: Findings from the study suggest consumption of Bambara nut seeds of different varieties is safe and has ability to ameliorate diabetic hepatic and renal failure in a variety dependent manner where; ALK 04 is more likely the most effective.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Assessment of Automated Teller and Point of Sales Machine User Interface in Uyo Metropolis, Nigeria

Ofonime U. M. John, Christiana E. Asuquo, Mfon M. Akpan

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 36-45
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i630220

The Automated Teller Machine (ATM) and Point of Sales (POS) machine user interface of different banks, schools, hospitals, restaurants/eateries, shopping malls and petrol/gas stations in Uyo metropolis were bacteriologically assessed in the dry and wet seasons using cultural technique. The result of fomites key pads indicate total heterotrophic bacteria counts (THBC) was in the order: Banks > Hospitals > Schools > Petrol/Gas stations > shopping malls > Restaurants/Eateries in both seasons. There was an increase in the bacterial counts of the fomites from all locations in the wet season compared to the dry season and the difference significant (p = 0.05). The THBC from ATMs in banks, hospitals and schools ranged from 5.6 ± 0.1 to 7.8 ± 0.6 Log₁₀CFU/cm2 and from POS 3.4 ± 0.3 to 5.0 ± 0.2 Log₁₀CFU/cm2) for Petrol/Gas stations, shopping malls and Restaurants/Eateries in the wet season. The dry season revealed THBC range of 4.1± 0.6 to 6.4 ± 0.3 Log₁₀CFU/cm2 for ATMs and 2.6 ± 0.8 to 3.8 ± 0.1 Log₁₀CFU/cm2 for POS. Organisms associated with the fomites were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and species of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Streptococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, Micrococcus, Vibrio and Klebsiella. The highest and least frequency of occurrence in the dry season indicated Micrococcus (17.2%) and Vibrio (1.4%) in relation to Staphylococcus aureus (18.2%) and Proteus sp. (2.8%) in the wet season. The Gram-positive organisms exhibited high and low susceptibility to Gentamycin and Augmentin compared to Ofloxacin and Amoxicillin respectively in Gram-negative bacteria. The results indicate ATM and POS machine user interface as possible sources of pathogenic organisms. Therefore, regular cleaning of ATM and POS user interface and public awareness on the need for adequate personal hygienic practice after the use of these machines is recommended to reduce associated risks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Inactivation Kinetics and Thermodynamic Properties of Peroxidase from Cucumis sativus for Biotechnological and Industrial Applications

Iweha Christian Chukwunyere, Ugwoke Faith Ifeanyi, Ogara Lydia Amaechi, Nweze Justus Amuche, Ogbonna Kenneth Ejike, Chinedum Patricia Eluka, Akor Joseph, Odu Maureen Nwamaka, Joshua Parker Elijah

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 46-62
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i630221

The unpurified enzyme gave specific activity of 51.36 μ/mg and thereafter it was subjected to two phases of purification process of salt precipitation and gel filtration. The precipitating agent was ammonium sulphate while Sephadex-G100 served as purification matrix. The purification fold achieved after precipitation and filtration was 3.3 and with corresponding specific activities of 34.22 μ/mg and 116.31 μ/mg. The substrate used for the assay was o-dianisidine. Within 40-80°C of temperature, the kinetics of the peroxidase inactivation was evaluated. The results from assays showed that cucumber peroxidase conformed to the hypothesis of  Michealis-Menten Theory. From the Lineweaver-Burk plot, Michaelis Constant (Km) and maximum velocity (Vmax) were evaluated and  obtained 5.02mg/ml and 11.57μmol/min respectively. The heat induced inactivation gave biphasic curves, where initial rise in temperature was rapidly succeeded with much slower decrease. A first-order kinetic behaviour was observed for cucumber peroxidase heat inactivation. The k values of between 3.49×10-2 to 8.38×10-2 min-1 was obtained while the Z value was found to be 22.3°C. Decrease in k values with rise in temperature suggests that cucumber peroxidase was rapidly inactivated at elevated temperature. The slope of Arrhenius plot gave the activation energy of 127.99KJMol-1K-1. Also evaluated were thermodynamic constants (ΔH, G Δ, ΔS) for inactivation of peroxidase at variable temperatures. Cucumber peroxidase activity was observed to be pH sensitive and stable within pH range of 5.6-8. Further decrease or increase from this range resulted to decrease in peroxidase stability.