Open Access Original Research Article

Physical-Chemical Characterization of the Oil Extracted from Sponge Gourd (Luffa cylindrica) Seeds and Its Potential Application as Lipid-base Raw Material to Produce Biodiesel

Y. M. Adeosun, O. O. Koyenikan, B. A. Oyewole

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i730222

The escalating prices of petroleum fuels, the uncertainties in their supply and the wreckage of global climate caused by their continual use have rekindled research interests in the use of plant oil for fuels and other biofuels. Sponge gourd seeds were investigated for its biodiesel properties with the aim of determining the desirability of incorporating the oil into bio-fuel. The seeds were sourced for, processed and extracted while the bio-fuel oil obtained were analyzed. 31.0 Percentage (%) of oil yield was obtained from Luffa cylindrica seeds according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) Standards which were used to determine other Biofuel properties of luffa cylindrica seed.  The laboratory analysis revealed that the oil obtained has higher viscosity at 40°C (15.55 mm2/s) which can perfectly meet up with an established standard of biodiesel on reduction after transesterification. The analysis obtained had a flash point of (150°C), Cetane number of (71.90), Refractive index of (1.645 nm), Acid value of (34.10 mg KOH/g) and Iodine value of (86.20 mgI2/g) obtained compared with most standard biodiesel which is in agreement with the specified ASTM biodiesel standard.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Storage on Nutrient Composition and Mycoflora of Stored Guinea Corn (Sorghum bicolor) Grains

E. D. Fagbohun, K. O. Ojo

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 15-25
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i730224

Aims: This research work aims to determine the changes in nutritional (proximate, mineral) composition and mycoflora of Sorghum bicolor grains stored for 5 months in order to determine its fitness in meeting nutritional demand.                        

Study Design: Experimental study design was carried out

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, from February 2017 to August 2018.

Methodology: The grain was procured from Usi market in Usi-Ekiti. It was further sundried for seven days and stored in an airtight container in the laboratory at room temperature. They were visually examined for external changes on the caryopsis and cultured to determine the spoilage fungi. Mineral and proximate analyses were routinely carried out to determine the changes in nutrient composition. These analyses were carried out monthly for five months to determine the changes in physicochemical properties and mycoflora associated with Sorghum bicolor on storage. Results: During storage, spoilage such as external mouldiness, discoloration, musty odour and progressive depletion of external caryopsis were observed on the grain. Seven species of fungi namely Penicillium glabrum, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp., Alternaria spp., Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated using a combination of direct plating, dilution and washing method. The colony count of the mycoflora population increased from 6 to 16 spore-forming units per gram. The proximate component comprising ash, moisture, crude protein, fat and fiber content decreased but an increase in carbohydrate content was recorded. A negative Pearson correlation (r = - .990) between crude protein and carbohydrate content was recorded. This was attributed to the presence of resistant starch in Sorghum bicolor and the use of alternative source(s) of carbon for energy by the fungi. The entire mineral component decreased during storage. Copper was the barest mineral while magnesium was the most stable mineral in the stored grain.

Conclusion: Sorghum bicolor grains contain vital minerals and nutrients. Prolonged storage of Sorghum bicolor increased the mycoflora population and consequently decreased the nutrient composition excluding the carbohydrate component. Some minerals and proximate components of the grain were relatively stable while others experienced pronounced depletion. Nutritionally deficient grains may lead to malnutrition especially in growing animals and human populations were adequate minerals and nutrients are required for rapid growth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenological Study of Irvingia gabonensis (Aubry-Lecomte ex O’ Rorke) Growing in Ihiala, Anambra State, South-East, Nigeria

Ochia M. Angela, Ekwealor U. Kenneth, Okigbo N. Raphael, Iroka F. Chisom

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 26-31
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i730225

Phenology refers to periodic biological phenomena that are correlated with climatic conditions. Very little is known about the phenological pattern of most tropical fruit trees especially in the South-East, Nigeria. The aim of this study was to provide a phenological data and baseline information on the phenology of Irvingia gabonensis (Aubry-lecomte ex O’Rorke). The study was conducted with exotic species at Ihiala, South-East, Nigeria, a tropical climate. The initiation and completion of different phenophases of the tree, such as budding, leafing, flowering, fruiting and ripening were recorded at 2 weeks interval. The combination of the principal growth stages and the secondary growth stages produced 2-digit codes, were used to delineate the time-dependent phenophases. The results showed that changes in the prevailing seasons influenced the vegetative phenophases in I. gabonensis. There are splashes of rains even in the supposed dry months. Hence, bud formation, leafing and leaf fall phenophases were overlapping all through the seasons. Flowering phenophase peaked by March/April with the coming of the rains. Also fruiting and ripening peaked by June/July respectively (rainy season). Thus the study has revealed that the major seasons in the area (rainy and dry seasons) influence the various phenophases in I. gabonensis. The study has equally revealed the phenological  data and base line information on the phenology of I. gabonensis which will in the future serve as correlation between phenology and climate change in the area. The study has revealed that the phenology of I. gabonensis may not be stable or resilient since it is influenced by these changing seasons, little wonder then a shift in phenology is recorded in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Guiera senegalensis and Natron on Serum Indices of Cardiac Function of Postpartum Rats

Aminu Lailaba Abubakar, Jabir Aliyu Danyaya, Kabiru Abubakar, Magaji Umar Faruk, Yusuf Saidu

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 32-45
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i730226

Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare but devastating cardiac failure of indeterminate etiology occurring in late pregnancy or early puerperium. The prevalence of PPCM in Northern Nigeria could be attributed to the unique customary puerperal practices of prolonged consumption of large quantities of Guiera senegalensis and Natron. This study investigated the effect of decoction of G. senegalensis with and without Natron on cardiac markers, lipid profile and histology of the heart in postpartum female albino rats using standard methods. Thirty-five (35) female albino rats of body weights 190-200 g of five month were randomly grouped into seven (7) of five rats each. Group 2, 3 and 4 were orally administered with 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of G. senegalensis. Group 5, 6 and 7 were orally administered with 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight (1:1) of G. senegalensis and Natron by gavage, whereas group 1 received distilled water. The study revealed significant (p< 0.05) decrease in triglyceride (TG) in group 2 to VII, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in group 2, 5 and 6, very low density lipoprotein- cholesterol (VLDL-c) in group 3 to V, couples with significant (p< 0.05) increase in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c)  in group 2, 3, 5 and 7, and  for (AIX) in group 2, total cholesterol (TC)  in group 2, 3 and 7 when compared with control. Significant (p< 0.05) increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in group 3 to 7, and myoglobin (MB) in group 3 was observed. Significant decrease (p< 0.05) in Troponin I (TnI) in group 2 and 4 was detected. There were no significant (p>0.05) changes in troponin T (Tn T), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and Creatine Kinase (CK-NAC) of the treatment group when compared to control group. Histopathological examination of section of the heart revealed ventricular dilatation, hypertrophied with enlarged nuclei, stretched, and irregular and mural thrombi in group 2 to 4 and 7. Inflammation in group 5 and 7, Pigment deposited in group 4 to 7 and mild fibrosis in group 3 were observed. The study demonstrates that consumption of G. senegalensis and Natron for 28 days induces dyslipidemia and causes changes in the heart of postpartum rats and thus may contribute to the pathogenesis of PPCM.

Open Access Original Research Article

Blood Profile and Selected Organ Histopathology of Balami Sheep Fed Shea Cake (Vitellaria paradoxa) Meal

D. O. Okunlola, M. D. Shittu, O. O. Olatunji, A. J. Amuda, B. O. Olateju, A. A. Fasola, A. J. Alao

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 46-56
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i730232

The blood profile and histology of selected tissues (kidney, lungs, intestine, and epididymis) of Balami Sheep fed Shea Cake meal supplement was investigated. A total of thirty-two (32) sheep of the average weight range of 11.75-14.75kg comprising an equal number (16) of males and females were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized experimental design with eight sheep per treatment for twelve weeks duration. Treatment 1 (T1) was a control diet and had zero inclusion level of Shea cake meal (SCM), while treatments 2,3, and 4 had 10%,15%, and 20%  inclusion of SCM, respectively. At the twelfth week of the experiment, two blood samples of 5ml each were taken from each animal from the jugular vein. The first set was preserved in Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid (EDTA) bottle for haematological parameters, while the second samples were preserved without EDTA for serum examination. Representative samples of tissues were randomly selected and slaughtered for gross microscopic examination. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) at various levels of inclusion for parameters investigated. The white blood cell (WBC), Red blood cell (RBC), and Packed cell volume (PCV) recorded the highest values at T3 (15% inclusion level) (13.42 x109/L), 2.92x1012/L, 3.75%, respectively). The serum parameters were significantly(p <0.05)different among the treatments. Total protein ranges from 54.78(mg/dl) (T1) - 60.51(mg/dl) (T2), Cholesterol70.15(mg/dl) (T1) - 78.00(mg/dl) (T4). Iron ranges from 58.15(ug/dl) (T1) - 62.88(ug/dl) (T3).The histopathology of tissues (kidney, lungs, intestine, and epididymis) showed no alteration across the treatments (P= .05) in the gross microscopic examinations. No lesion was observed in the lungs, kidney, epididymis, and intestine. The results showed that shea cake meal posed no health risk to Balami sheep and as such recommended as a good supplement in the diets of the sheep.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Response, Carcass Yield and Meat Quality of West African Dwarf Sheep Fed Graded Level of Shea Cake Meal

D. O. Okunlola, A. J. Amuda, M. D. Shittu, O. O. Olatunji, O. T. Ojoawo, O. S. Olaniyan, B. O. Olateju, A. A. Fasola, A. J. Alao

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 57-62
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i730237

Growth response, carcass characteristics and meat quality of West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep fed Shea Cake Meal (SCM) supplement was investigated. A total of 24 WAD sheep of average body weight ranges from 11-12.65 kg comprising of twelve (12) males and twelve (12) females were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments with six animals per treatment in a completely randomized design in a twelve (12) weeks experimental period. Treatment 1 was control and had no inclusion of SCM. Treatments 2, 3 and 4 had 10%, 15% and 20% inclusion of SCM. Results were significantly different (P<0.05) across treatments. Average weight gain ranged from 10.0 kg (SCM-10) to 13.12 kg (SCM-15). T3 recorded highest values for average feed intake (AFI) at a record value of 63.50 kg. T2 had the least feed conversion ratio of 4.81. The carcass quality and sensory evaluation were significantly affected (P<0.05) across the treatments. Hot carcass weight (HCW) ranged from 18.90 kg (SCM-10) to 20.85 kg (SCM-15). Cold carcass weight was recorded 18.05 kg (SCM-10) and 19.95 kg (SCM-20), respectively. Minimum chilling loss of 3.96% was recorded at SCM-15 inclusion level. Animals on SCM-15 inclusion recorded the highest value of 7.55, 7.25 and 7.25 respectively for appearance, tenderness and overall acceptability. SCM-20 had highest value of 7.50 for juiciness compared to SCM-10 and SCM-15 with recorded values of 6.80 and 7.20, respectively. The study showed that all the dietary inclusion was satisfactory as feed for small ruminants without any deleterious effect on their performance as well as on carcass yield and meat quality. Inclusion level of SCM-15 supplement had highest overall performance when fed to (WAD) sheep.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Neurotoxins from Clostridium botulinum against Neuro-muscular Disorders

Sravani Nalapur, Rangarao Ambati

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 7-14
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i730223

Neuro-muscular disorders cause a series of serious complications in the human body, where some lead to considerable morbidity and mortality ocassionally. Neurological diseases result in dystrophy, inhibited growth, etc. This present review aimed to emphasize the employment of neurotoxins against neuro degenerative disorders. The source of neurotoxins includes botulinum (Clostridium botulinum), snakes like Vespa orientalis and some medically important arthropods like hornets and spiders. The review not only describes the potential of the neurotoxins in the treatment but also elucidates the mechanism of action of lethal toxins like botulinum. Safety and dosage regimens of various toxins with the help of proven study data would aid in endorsing researchers for further research on toxins making them more superior targeted drugs.