Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Content of Selected Fin and Shell Fish from Named Rivers in Ogoniland, Rivers State, Nigeria

Jumbo Adata Akie, M.O Wegwu, D. C. Belonwu, B. M. Onyegeme-Okerenta, C. T. Iriakuma

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i830228

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content in selected fin and shell fishes from Bodo and Kaa in Ogoniland were studied. PAH was determined by Gas chromatography, using Texas Natural Resource Conversion Commission, Texas (TNRCC TX) method. There was a total of 16 PAHs detected in the samples from the two sites, test site (Bodo) and control site (Kaa). Similar PAH accumulations were observed in the four species, but the concentrations of the PAH accumulations were different. For samples from Kaa, Mullet showed the highest total mean concentration of PAHs followed by Sompat grunt, Tilapia and the least was Shrimps. However, for samples collected from Bodo, Tilapia showed the highest total mean concentration of PAHs, followed by Sompat grunt, Shrimps, and the least Mullet. These findings were not definitive as to the source of the PAH, seemingly suggesting various or multiple sources of PAHs contamination in the studied sites. These variations may be attributed to their feeding habits. The mean and standard deviations for PAHs from the test site ranged from 0.08±.000b to 23.7±.473b, 0.05±.001b to 7.74±.346b, 0.02±.001b to 9.48±.002b, 0.07±.000b to 11.0±.029b for Tilapia, Mullet, Shrimps and Sompat grunt respectively and 0.18±.006a to 6.56±.064a, 0.08±.000a to 11.8±.555a, 0.05±.002a to 3.11±.036a, 0.05±.002a to 5.12±.059a for samples of Tilapia, Mullet, Shrimp and Sompat grunt respectively from the control site. In conclusion, the calculated potency equivalence concentration (PEC) for all the tested aquatic species collected from Kaa and Bodo were all above the screening value (SV) suggesting that the consumption of these aquatic species from the test and control site at a rate of 68g/day in an adult of about 60kg will expose the individual to a potential risk of cancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Agricultural Wastes for Substrates in Oxalic Acid Production Using Aspergillus niger

Dennis M. Chioma, Gideon O. Abu, Obioma K. Agwa

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 11-19
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i830229

The disposal and attendant problems associated with agro-wastes have remained a challenge to the environment. Three agricultural wastes (cassava whey, banana peels and groundnut shells) were collected from the Choba and Yam zone markets in Rivers State, Nigeria and screened for their potential as substrates in the formulation of fermentation media to produce oxalic acid. The inoculum for the study was isolated from the banana peels and identified using the megablast search for highly similar sequences from the NCBI non-redundant nucleotide database. The microbial load and proximate composition of the substrates were determined, and the fermentation media formulated. The organism used for the study was identified as Aspergillus niger MW188538. The results showed a total bacterial count of 9.5x104 cfu/ml, 1.87 x 105 cfu/ml, and 4.0 x 104 cfu/g for cassava whey, banana peels and groundnut shell respectively. The carbohydrates of the cassava whey, banana peels and groundnut shells were 67.74 %w/v, 53.24%w/v and 38.8% w/v respectively. After 12 days of fermentation, the substrates from cassava whey, banana peels, groundnut shells accumulated 2.5 ppm, 1.8 ppm and 1.3 ppm of oxalic acid respectively. The study hypothetically indicates that agro-wastes could be utilized as media components for production of industrial organics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Bio - Efficacy and Phytotoxicity of Glyphosate 41% SL against Weed Flora in Grape Vineyards

S. D. Ramteke, A. H. Gavali, S. M. Khalate, A. R. Langote

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 20-32
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i830230

The study was evaluated for the bio- efficacy and phytotoxicity of Glyphosate 41% SL against the complex weed flora in grapevines. The experiment was carried out at ICAR- NRC Grapes, Pune with seven treatments replicated thrice. The treatments were imposed at 3-4 leaf stage of weeds in vineyards. All the weed population were niformly distributed in vineyards.  All the treatments significantly reduced weed density over untreated control. The highest weed density was recorded with untreated control while, the negligible weed density was recorded in hand weeding followed by Glyphosate 41 % SL @ 4000 ml/ha at 15th, 30th, 45th Days after application. Least dry weight (g/m2) as recorded with Glyphosate 41 % SL @ 4000 ml/ha followed by Glyphosate 41 % SL @ 3000 ml/ha whereas, the maximum dry weight of weed (g/m2) was recorded with untreated control at 45th Days after application.  Highest weed control efficacy (%) was recorded with Glyphosate 41 % SL @ 4000 ml/ha followed by Glyphosate 41 % SL @ 3000 ml/ha whereas, negligible weed control efficacy (%) Was recorded with untreated control. The highest yield (kg/vines) was recorded with hand weeding treatments followed by Glyphosate 41 % SL @ 4000. The highest benefit: cost ratio was recorded in the treatment Glyphosate 41 % SL (4000 ml/ha) (1:1.99), while least in control treatment (1:1.77). Applications of Glyphosate 41 % SL @ 4000 ml/ha in grapevines showed highest weed control efficacy (%) and yield per vine (kg/vine) in this investigation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Consumer Preferences for Boiled and Fried Sweet Potato in Central and Northern Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa

Martial Jean Huges Kouassi, Gisèle Ahou Yah Koua, Brice Evrad Konan Dibi, Michel Amani Kouakou, Catherine Bomoh Ebah Djedji, Sidoine Brice Essis, Boni N’Zué

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 33-46
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i830231

Aims: This study evaluated the sensory properties and consumer acceptability of orange-fleshed sweet potato and local sweet potato among households of Central and Northern Côte d’Ivoire.

Study Design: Selection of sweet potato cultivars, determination of nutritional properties, cooking process, and evaluation of hedonic testing and consumer acceptability.

Place and Duration of Study: Bouake and Korhogo district in Central and Northern Côte d’Ivoire, for three years 2018, 2019, and 2020 (July to November).

Methodology: Sensory evaluation and acceptability were performed using a nine-point hedonic scale. The relationships between the sensory attributes and the sweet potato cultivars were analyzed using a Principal Component Analysis plot. Biochemical standard methods were used to determine the dry matter, sugar, total carotenoid contents, and mineral composition of sweet potato cultivars tested by the sensory panel.

Results: All twelve sweet potato cultivars were accepted based on sensory attributes with the different traits of preference. In Bouake district, white (Sanfo Figui 1 and Sanfo Figui 2) and yellow cultivars (Fatoni 2) were most preferred for their texture and yam-like taste, while in Korhogo locality, OFSP (Covington TIB-440060, CIP-199062-1 and Irene) and yellow cultivar (Gotchan) were most accepted because of their attractive appearance and their sweet taste. The OFSP cultivars recorded low dry matter and high sugar content compared to white and yellow varieties. Also, OFSP showed the highest content of carotenoid (181.70 to 351.47 µg/g dw), while local variety recorded low content. All the sweet potato cultivars tested contain mineral components.

Conclusion: This study shows that the local and OFSP varieties were successfully accepted by the consumer with the different quality traits. The main quality traits that determine consumer preference are appearance, texture, and taste (none or sweet taste). Understanding consumer quality traits can increase the effectiveness of breeding programmes, increase yield and adoption of new varieties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship of Climatic Variables with Abundance of Indoor Mosquito Genera in Six Communities in Ekiti State, Nigeria

Omojola F. Olorunniyi

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 47-57
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i830233

Understanding the relationship between climate variables and mosquito abundance is an important factor to determine parasite activity levels and disease risk since various mosquito genera are vectors of parasitic diseases. This necessitated the investigation of relationship between climatic variables and mosquito abundance in Ekiti State, Nigeria with reference to six selected communities. Adult mosquitoes were collected indoor for twelve months in these communities using light traps. The abundance of collected mosquitoes was related with climatic variables (rainfall, relative humidity and temperature). One thousand two hundred and seventeen (1217) adult mosquitoes were collected indoor in all the communities. The population of the mosquito genera was significantly higher (P=0.01) in rainy season than dry season. Average rainfall showed a strong relationship (R2= 0.751) with Anopheles abundance but relationship was weak for both Culex (R2= 0.236) and Aedes (R2= 0.042). The relationship of relative humidity and average temperature with abundance of mosquito genera was generally weak. Since the abundance of mosquito genera was higher in all the communities during rainy season than dry season it will be more appropriate to control mosquitoes in the communities during the rainy season.