Open Access Original Research Article

Protocol Optimization of DNA Extraction from Banana Fruits

Denis Omara, Banson John Barugahare

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2022/v25i430274

Background: DNA extraction is the process by which the DNA is extracted and purified from the living or dead cells or tissues. There are many different kits commercially available for DNA extraction, with varying protocols. This study aimed at determining the optimal conditions for the extraction of high yield DNA from banana fruits.

Methodology: DNA was extracted from banana fruits by precipitation method. The DNA yield was determined using the Nanodrop DNA quantification technique.

Results: The optimal sodium chloride salt concentration for DNA extraction from banana fruits was 4mM and the amount of DNA extracted increased as the temperature decreased. The highest yield was obtained between 4 0C to 0 0C.

Conclusion: We report for the first time a protocol with an optimal salt concentration (NaCl, 4mM) for quality DNA yield from banana fruits.  A critical consideration is required to establish an optimal range of moderate temperatures and DNA concentrations for better quality and desired yields. There may not be a universal protocol for DNA extraction from all plant materials.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Ulcer and Blood-Boosting Effect of Diet Supplemented with Daedalea quercina from Ogbomoso, Oyo State, South West of Nigeria on Indomethacin Induced Gastric Ulcer In Rats

Francis Chukwumma Omeonu, Segun Gbolagade Jonathan, Adeola Temitope Salami, Victor Okechukwu Azuh, Benjamin Vandelun Ado

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 6-21
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2022/v25i430275

Gastric Ulcer is a common ailment in Nigeria, with synthetic drug treatment becoming less effective, hence, herbal remedies are being sought. Daedalea quercina (Dq) has been shown to have significant therapeutic potential, but little is known about its anti-ulcer and blood-enhancing qualities, which is why this study was conducted.

Fifty male wistar rats (100-110g; n=5) were divided into two sets of five groups respectively for days 7 and 14 treatments. Blood samples were collected on days 7 and 14 for full blood count. Gastric ulceration was induced in the rats using indomethacin (40 mg/kg p.o) after 24 hours fast on days 8 and 15. Animals were euthanised 4 hours after ulceration, stomachs were excised and analysed for malondialdehyde, sulfhydryl, nitrite, mucin and H+K+-ATPase activity, using standard procedures while tissues from the stomach were harvested and processed for routine histology. Data were expressed as Mean ±SEM, analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and p≤ 0.05 was significant.

Haematological indicators were not significantly affected with the treatment. Significant differences were observed with nitric oxide, mucin, sulfhydryl, and hydrogen-peroxide and H+/K+-ATPase.

Daedalea quercina treatment groups demonstrated anti-ulcer and blood-boosting activities through the synergistic activities of increased nitrite and antioxidant pathways.

Open Access Original Research Article

Computational Screening of Medicinal Plant Phytochemicals to Discover Potent Inhibitors against Hepatitis B Virus

Vikas Jha, Kabir Thakur, Navdeep Kaur, Vrushali Dhamapurkar, Omkar Bhosale, Pankaj Mhatre, Mansi Mulay, Ashish Jhangiani, Diksha Rai, Himadri Yadav

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 22-38
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2022/v25i430276

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are infamous to cause liver damage, hepatocellular carcinoma, and cirrhosis, all of which can be fatal in nature. Nucleotide analogues, which target viral reverse transcriptase, and interferon therapy, which is known to have side effects in recipients, are currently being used to treat such infections. Increasingly, the growing viral resistance towards the first line of drugs has been a concern for the healthcare system worldwide, and therefore the need for new therapeutic interventions has been noted and novel viral targets are being explored. The HBV core protein (HBc), which regulates several viral replication checkpoints in the host cell, is one such possible target for therapeutic development. In this study, we use in silico approach to investigate the potential of various phytochemicals and natural compounds to be developed as antiviral medicines that target HBc protein. For which, the compounds were collected from databases and potential candidates were screened and shortlisted based on their pharmacokinetics and drug-likeness using Lipinski’s rule of five. Further, the chosen phytochemicals were subjected to docking analysis, and binding affinities were evaluated to set a cut-off value for selecting the best interactions, which showed better binding energy values compared to standard anti-HBV drugs. Further, the two- and three-dimensional interactions of the ligand and target protein complexes were studied to gain insights into the ligand-target bonding patterns, and bioavailability and toxicity profiles were analyzed to understand the safety and efficacy of the selected compounds to be developed as anti-HBV interventions. Upon complete inspection, Ingenol was identified as the best candidate among the chosen phytochemicals, followed by I-asarinin and Withaferin. We hope that the findings from this study will be useful in the development of anti-HBV drug candidates or formulations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Duration Dependent Impact of Aspartame and Sacoglottis gabonensis on the Liver of Swiss Mice

Aruchi, Wekhe-Emenike, Eme Efioanwan Orlu, Adetutu Olubunmi Obulor

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 39-49
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2022/v25i430277

Aim: This study aimed at evaluating the duration dependent impact of aspartame and Sacoglottis gabonensis on the liver of male swiss mice.

Location and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the green house of the Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Nigeria (Coordinates 4o48’14’'N 6o59’12”E). The experiment lasted for Ninety days.

Experimental Design: A completely randomized experimental design employing relevant statistical tools for analysis and interpretation.

Methodology: Ninety adult male mice were assigned to six groups (A-F) of fifteen mice each. Group A was the negative control and so they were not given any treatment, but only given pellet and clean tap water. Group B was the positive control and received 50mg/kg/bw/day of aspartame alone. Group C received 50mg/kg/bw/day of aspartame and 250mg/kg/bw/day of ethanolic extract of Sacoglottis gabonensis leaf. Group D receive 50mg/kg/bw/day of aspartame and 250mg/kg/bw/day of ethanolic extract of S. gabonensis bark. Group E received 50mg/kg/bw/day of aspartame and 250mg/kg/bw/day of a combination of bark and leaf extract. Group F received 50mg/kg/bw/day of aspartame and 500mg/kg/bw/day of a combination of bark and leaf extract. All the groups were exposed to their treatment by oral gavage for 30, 60 and 90days. Feed was withdrawn from the animals 24hours before the termination of experiment. For Biochemical analysis, blood samples were collected by ocular puncture into sterile tubes and serum separated by centrifugation at 2500 g for 10 mins and stored for determination of some liver biomarkers using their respective kits. For histopathological analysis, 0.5g of Liver was fixed in 10% neutral formalin and sectioned with a digital microtome (AO Spencer, No. 820) at 5 µm thick. Histological sections mounted on slides were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E). Photomicrographs were generated at X40 magnification and interpreted.

Results: There was significant (p<0.05) increase in Malondialdehyde (MDA), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the group B administered aspartame only when compared with the groups co-administered extracts of leaf, bark and combination of Sacoglottis gabonensis. Also, a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the concentrations of superoxide dismutase (SOD), gluthathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) was recorded in group B when compared to other groups across the experimental period. Groups coadministered S. gabonensis extract showed a significant increase in SOD, GSH and CAT and decrease in MDA compared to the positive control. Histopathological analysis shows the liver epithelium of the negative control group being filled with healthy normal hepatocytes, while liver exposed to aspartame alone (positive control) showed degenerated hepatocytes, multiple necrotic and apoptotic cells. The liver epithelium exposed to aspartame and the extracts of S. gabonensis showed regenerating hepatocytes with many binucleated cells seen, few necrotic and apoptotic bodies also seen.

Conclusion: The significant decrease in liver injury biomarkers, increase in the oxidative stress biomarkers and the increased number of hepatocytes captured in the liver epithelium of animals co-administered S. gabonensis shows the novel property of S.gaboensis as an antioxidant defense against oxidative damage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Gravidity on Atherogenic Indices in Normotensive and Hypertensive Second Trimester Pregnant Women

Oladapo-Akinfolarin Tomaziga Tomiloba, Akinfolarin Oladapo Mayowa, Ken-Ezihuo Stella Urekweru, Anyalebechi Eberechukwu Okwuchi

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 50-57
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2022/v25i430278

Background: Pregnancy results in certain physiological and metabolic changes that results to shift in certain biochemical markers and could even result in hypertension in some women thus predisposing them to risk of cardiovascular disease. While this is true, some women express these predisposing risk factors in subsequent pregnancies. Therefore, it may be a significant contribution to understand the dynamics of artherogenic indices with increasing number of pregnancies.

Aim: The goal of the study was aimed to assess gravidity effect on artherogenic indices in both normotensive and hypertensive second-trimester pregnant women.

Materials and Methods: At Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, a cross-sectional study was carried out with 100 pregnant women. The consenting patients who met the inclusion criteria were classified into two groups: normotensive (50 normotensive pregnant women in their second trimester) and hypertensive (50 hypertensive pregnant women in their second trimester) (HPW2T). The participants were subsequently split into three subgroups depending on gravidity: primigravida (no of pregnancy=1), multigravida (no of pregnancies>1), and grand multigravida (no of pregnancies≥5). For the assessment of TC, TG, HDL, and LDL, fasting blood samples were taken using the venepuncture technique. Mathematically, artheriogenic indices (AIP, CR-I, CR-II, AC, and APoB/APoA1) were calculated. At a P-value>0.05, the data was examined using ANOVA and the Tukey comparison test.

Results: There was no significant difference in artheriogenic indices between the gravidity groups in the normotensive group, with a P-value>0.05, which was also the cases among those in the hypertensive group.

Conclusion: The study has shown that gravidity does not have any effect on artheriogenic indices among normotensive and hypertensive pregnant women in the second trimester in Rivers State University Teaching Hospital.