Application of Phytogenics as First Feed of Larval African Catfish Clarias gariepinus
Issue: 2016 - Volume 5 [Issue 3]
U. D. Enyidi *
Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria and Department of Biotechnology, Godfrey Okoye University, Thinkers Corner, Emene Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria
A. S. Nduh-Nduh
Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria
*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Lack of fingerlings is still hampering aquaculture development in Sub-Saharan Africa. African catfish Clarias gariepinus do not have developed stomach at onset of exogenous feeding. Absence of fully developed digestive system at onset of larval exogenous feeding makes catfish unable to utilize dry diets. Introduction of phytogenic feeds that possess naturally occurring hormone could be helpful in enhancing catfish ability to utilize dry feeds. Consequently we made six novel diets comprising entirely of phytogenic ingredients, labeled feed 1 (F1) to feed 6 (F6). The percentage compositions of the experimental feeds were; F1, 100% lettuce seed meal; F2, 100% pawpaw leave meal; F3 100% neem seed meal; F4, (50:50) Lettuce seed meal: pawpaw leaves meal; F5, (50:50) pawpaw leaves meal:neem seed meal and F6, (50:50) Lettuce seed meal: neem seed meal. The control diet F7, was decapsulated artemia. There were three replicates aquariums per treatment diet and first feeding larvae were fed with the diets for fifteen days to examine dietary effects through larval and post larval periods. Larval African catfish were produced through artificial fertilization and stocked at 100 larvae 10 liters-1 aquarium. The larvae fed with F1 had the F6 had the highest SGR of 10.12% day-1 followed by SGR of larvae fed with F5 8.27% day- and F2, 8.02% day-1. Larvae fed with F3 and F4 had similar SGR but higher than those fed with F1. The larvae fed with feed 7 and F6 had similar weight gain that was significantly better than others (P<0.05). The larvae fed with Feed F5 and F2 had similar weight gains but were better than those fed with F1, F3 and F4. Survival of larvae seems to be enhanced by inclusion of lettuce in diets of larvae Africa catfish. The survival the larvae fed with F1 was approximately 27% while survival of larvae fed with F6 was next with survival rate of 21%. The larvae fed with F3 had survival rate of 18%, which was different from F1 fed larvae. The least survival rate was noted for larvae fed with F4. Results indicate that phytogenic feeds exert significant effects on the survival, growth and weight gain of first feeding African catfish larvae. Catfish seem to benefit from natural phytogenic components of the plant diets. Feeds like lettuce seed and its combinations produced similar larval growth rate as using artemia alone.
Keywords: Phytogenics, larval catfish, larviculture, lettuce and neem seed