Proteases are a varied and ancient family of enzymes that play a part in every aspect of an organism's functioning. As a member of the hydrolytic enzyme family, they help break down proteins into smaller peptides and amino acids. Proteases carry out a nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon of the scissile bond to facilitate the addition of water. Because of the wide range of variances in their characteristics, such as substrate selectivity, active site composition, and catalytic mechanism, it is impossible to make generalizations regarding their stability and activity. Peptide synthesis, meat tenderization, cheese production, soy sauce production, silk industry organic syntheses, pharmaceutical industry waste treatment, protein hydrolyzation, and silver recovery from the waste photographic film are just some of the many applications of proteases, which have broad substrate specificity. Around 60% of all enzymes sold in the world are proteases derived from plants, animals, and microorganisms.
Background /Aim: The consumption of ready-to-eat fruits such as oranges has increased in recent times. This study assessed the correlation between some physical and microbial quality characteristics of peeled sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) sold in Yenagoa, the capital of Bayelsa State, Nigeria.
Methodology: A total of thirty peeled oranges were purchased, three from each location. Standard microbiological methods were applied for the analysis.
Results: Results showed that the in situ characteristics and microbiological load of peeled oranges sold in Yenagoa, Nigeria were in the ranges of 1.86 to 3.15 Log CFU/g (total fungi), 1.56 to 2.86 Log CFU/g (total heterotrophic bacteria), 3.14 to – 4.19 (pH), 1.84 to 3.03 ppt (salinity), 3.27 to 5.00 mS/cm (conductivity) and 2.56 to 4.10 ppt (total dissolved solid). There was statistical deviation (p<0.05) for the in situ characteristics only. There was a positive significant association between the total dissolved solids and conductivity, and total heterotrophic bacteria and total fungi. Salinity negatively correlates with total heterotrophic bacteria and total fungi. The microbial isolates found in the samples include Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, Bacillus, Proteus, and Micrococcus species, as well asAspergillus, Penicillium, Mucor, Fusarium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Trichoderma species.
Conclusion: However, with improved handling and hygiene levels among orange vendors, the microbial load could be reduced. Furthermore, the study showed that similar factors affected the total dissolved solids, conductivity, total heterotrophic bacteria, and total fungi. While the negative correlations that exists between salinity and total heterotrophic bacteria and total fungi revealed that diverse factors affect their concentrations in the orange.
Aim: To evaluate the effect of co-inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. fluorescens + Azospirillum brasilense on seedling emergence speed, development and soybean yield.
Study Design: Randomized complete block design with five treatments and eight replications.
Place and Duration of Study: Ibiporã, Paraná State, Brazil, during the 2020/21 season.
Methodology: The treatments consisted of untreated control (Cont); mineral fertilizer (Min); mineral fertilizer + (P. fluorescens + A. brasiliense) (Min – Psf + Azb); mineral fertilizer + P. fluorescens at two doses (Min – Psf 100 and Min – Psf 200). The effect in the soybean was assessed by determining the effect on the seedling emergence speed, crop development and crop yield. Data were subject to ANOVA at P = 0.10 Treatments means were separated using the Duncan test at a 0.10 level of significance.
Results: The inoculant treatments had non-significant effect on the emergence speed index and crop stand. However, the co-inoculation with P. fluorescens at two doses resulted in the best plant vigor. In addition, the treatments with co-inoculation increased shoots and root biomass, with Min – Psf 100 inducing more nodules. Finally, Min – Psf + Azb and Min – Psf 200 had very significant results for soybean yield.
Conclusion: This study revealed that the co-inoculation treatments tested led to great soybean response, especially for P. fluorescens at a doubled dose, which demonstrated a significant increase in soybean development and yield in relation to the control.
Aims: The indiscriminate use of antimicrobials contributed to the selection of multiresistant bacterial strains, mainly Enterococcus faecalis, leading to the search for new strategies for these infections, requiring the identification of new bioactive compounds from medicinal plants, an example is C. spruceanum used in traditional communities in the Amazon.
In this sense, this study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of C. spruceanum leaf extract against E. faecalis "in vitro" for endodontic purposes.
Place and Duration of Study: Sample: the study was carried out at the microbiology laboratory of the Federal University of Acre (UFAC), in the city of Rio Branco, state of Acre, Brazil, from July 2021 to January 2022.
Methodology: For this study, 50mg/mL of the crude extract of C. spruceanum leaf was diluted in Dimethylsulfoxide, as well as 50mg/mL of the extract with 1000mg of calcium hydroxide and 1000mg of calcium hydroxide in 1mL of distilled water. After preparing the extracts, 20µL were deposited in the wells made on Müeler-Hinton agar medium seeded with E. faecalis, incubated for 24 hours at 37°C. After this period, the positive activity of the extracts was obtained from the formation of the inhibition halo in millimeters.
Results: The best results were for extract associated with calcium hydroxide (20mm), followed by calcium hydroxide solution (17.67mm) and with lower activity, C. spruceanum extract (14.33mm). The best results of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration with values of 6.25 mg/mL for the extract combined with calcium hydroxide and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration that was 25mg/mL for the association of the extract with calcium hydroxide.
Conclusion: The C. spruceanum extract has antibacterial activity against E. faecalis and its association with calcium hydroxide potentiated its effect.
Shallow mountain lakes are highly sensitive to eutrophication. Cyanobacteria and microalgae in planktonic communities are the main producers in lake ecosystems, but stability of its communities is impacted by numerous factors. The aim of this study is to analyze seasonal diversity and community structure of cyanobacteria and microalgae in plankton and periphyton of the lake Paučko, physical and chemical properties of water and evaluate trophic status. The mountain lake Paučko is the shallow natural lake in Protected landscape Konjuh in northeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina. Sampling of net – phytoplankton, periphyton and water for physical and chemical analysis was caried in two seasons in 2018. Light microscopes and immersion objective (magnification 1000x) were used for the identification and quantification of microalgae. Non metric multimensional scaling and Simper analysis were used to describe communities in periphytic and planktic samples. In total, 70 taxa were identified. The most numerous were Bacillariophyta with 52, and Chlorophyta with 7 taxa. Seasonal dynamics in plankton communities were observed in the direction of shift of abundant Cyclotella meneghiniana, Dinobryon divergens, Peridinum cinctum and Ankistrodesmus fusiformus in spring season to Rabdodermalineare and Pantocsekiella comensis in summer sampling season. Physical and chemical analysis of water revealed high values of total phosphorus, which correspond to the evaluated meso to eutrophic status of the lake calculated by Rott Trophic Index. The lake Paučko is under high pressure caused by the influx and retention of nutrients, which makes it susceptible to eutrophication. The results of the study provide the first insight into the diversity of cyanobacteria and microalgae for this lake and can be useful in planning of restoration measures in the context of ecological monitoring.